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Table of Contents
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
F
ORM
20-F
 
 
(Mark One)
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ende
d December 31, 2021
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report: N/A
Commission File
Number:
001-41339
 
 
SWVL HOLDINGS CORP
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Not Applicable
 
British Virgin Islands
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
 
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
The Offices 4, One Central
Dubai World Trade Centre
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
(Address of principal executive offices)
Mostafa Kandil
Swvl Holdings Corp
The Offices 4, One Central
Dubai World Trade Centre
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Telephone Number: +971 42241293
(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading
Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Ordinary Shares, par value $0.0001 per share
 
SWVL
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Warrants
 
SWVLW
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
 
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
Outstanding
as of
December 31, 2021: 1 Class A Ordinary Share and 0 warrants.
Outstanding
as of April 14, 2022
: 118,883,073 Class A Ordinary Shares and 17,433,333 warrants.
Indicate
by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
If this
report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate
by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate
by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, anon-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
       
Non-accelerated filer
 
  
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
 
The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check
mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting over Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
US GAAP  ☐           International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
 
by
            Other  ☐
            the International Accounting Standards Board            
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow
.    Item 17  ☐    Item 18  ☐
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act
).    Yes  ☐    No  
 
 
 

SWVL HOLDINGS CORP
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  
 
1
 
  
 
2
 
  
 
3
 
  
 
1
 
ITEM 1.
  
  
 
1
 
ITEM 2.
  
  
 
1
 
ITEM 3.
  
  
 
1
 
ITEM 4.
  
  
 
41
 
ITEM 4A.
  
  
 
52
 
ITEM 5.
  
  
 
53
 
ITEM 6.
  
  
 
72
 
ITEM 7.
  
  
 
79
 
ITEM 8.
  
  
 
82
 
ITEM 9.
  
  
 
83
 
ITEM 10.
  
  
 
84
 
ITEM 11.
  
  
 
95
 
ITEM 12.
  
  
 
95
 
  
 
96
 
ITEM 13.
  
  
 
96
 
ITEM 14.
  
  
 
96
 
ITEM 15.
  
  
 
97
 
ITEM 16.
  
  
 
98
 
  
 
99
 
ITEM 17.
  
  
 
99
 
ITEM 18.
  
  
 
99
 
ITEM 19.
  
  
 
99
 
 
 
i

EXPLANATORY NOTE
On March 31, 2022, Swvl Holdings Corp (“Holdings”), formerly known as Pivotal Holdings Corp, a British Virgin Islands business company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands, consummated the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement (the “Business Combination Agreement”), dated as of July 28, 2021, as amended, by and among Holdings, Queen’s Gambit Growth Capital, a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability (“SPAC”), Swvl Inc., a British Virgin Islands business company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands (“Swvl”), Pivotal Merger Sub Company I, a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability and wholly owned subsidiary of Holdings (“Cayman Merger Sub”) and Pivotal Merger Sub Company II Limited, a British Virgin Islands business company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands and wholly owned subsidiary of SPAC (“BVI Merger Sub”), pursuant to which Swvl became a wholly owned subsidiary of Holdings. On April 1, 2022, Swvl’s ordinary shares (“Ordinary Shares”) and public warrants (“Warrants”) (together, the “Swvl Securities”) began trading on the Nasdaq under the symbols “SWVL” and “SWVLW”, respectively. Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, for the purposes of this Report, “Swvl”, “we”, “us”, “our”, or the “Company” refer to the business of Holdings and its subsidiaries.
 
1

Table of Contents
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Report contains or may contain forward-looking statements as defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that involve significant risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include information about our possible or assumed future results of operations or our performance. Words such as “anticipate,” “appear,” “approximate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “foresee,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “would” and variations of such words and similar expressions (or the negative version of such words or expressions) may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. The risk factors and cautionary language referred to in this Report provide examples of risks, uncertainties and events that may cause actual results to differ materially from the expectations described in our forward-looking statements, including among other things, the items identified in the section of this Report entitled “Item 3.D. Risk Factors.”
Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Report. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, there can be no assurance that such expectations will prove to be correct. These statements involve known and unknown risks and are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates which are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
 
2

Table of Contents
FREQUENTLY USED TERMS
Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this Report to:
 
   
“B2B” are to “business to business”;
 
   
“B2C” are to “business to consumer”;
 
   
“bookings” are to seats that have been reserved by riders on a ride;
 
   
“Business Combination Agreement” are to that certain Business Combination Agreement, dated as of July 28, 2021, by and among Swvl Inc., SPAC, Holdings, Cayman Merger Sub and BVI Merger Sub, as amended;
 
   
“Business Combination” are to the transactions effected by the Business Combination Agreement;
 
   
“BVI” are to the British Virgin Islands;
 
   
“BVI Companies Act” are to the BVI Business Companies Act (As Revised);
 
   
“captains” are to drivers using Swvl’s platform;
 
   
“Exchange Act” are to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934;
 
   
“Holdings” are to Swvl Holdings Corp, a British Virgin Islands business company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands, formerly known as Pivotal Holdings Corp, and unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, for the purposes of this Report, “Swvl”, “we”, “us”, “our” and the “Company” refer to the business of Holdings and its subsidiaries;
 
   
“IFRS” are to International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the IASB;
 
   
“Ordinary Shares” are to Swvl’s Class A Ordinary Shares listed on the Nasdaq under the trading symbol “SWVL”;
 
   
“Nasdaq” are to The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC;
 
   
“riders” are to persons filling seats on rides;
 
   
“Sarbanes-Oxley Act” are to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;
 
   
“seats” are to physical spaces on rides that can be booked by riders;
 
   
“SEC” are to the Securities and Exchange Commission;
 
   
“Securities Act” are to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;
 
   
“service provider” are to any employee, officer, director, individual independent contractor or individual consultant of Swvl or any Swvl Subsidiary;
 
   
“Sponsor Warrants” are to Swvl’s private warrants initially issued in a private placement to Queen’s Gambit Holdings, LLC.
 
   
“Swvl Board” are to the board of directors of Swvl Holdings Corp.
 
3

Table of Contents
   
“Swvl Securities” are to Swvl’s Ordinary Shares and Warrants.
 
   
“Warrants” are to Swvl’s public warrants listed on the Nasdaq under the trading symbol “SWVLW.”
 
4

Table of Contents
PART I
 
ITEM 1.
IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
 
A.
Directors and Senior Management
Not applicable.
 
B.
Advisors
Not applicable.
 
C.
Auditors
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 2.
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 3.
KEY INFORMATION
 
A.
[Reserved]
 
B.
Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
 
C.
Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
 
D.
Risk Factors
Summary
An investment in our securities involves substantial risks and uncertainties that may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and cash flows. Some of the more significant challenges and risks relating to an investment in our company include, among other things, the following:
 
   
Several countries in which Swvl operates and plans to operate in the future have been subject to political and economic instability.
 
   
Swvl’s limited operating history and rapidly evolving business make it particularly difficult to evaluate Swvl’s prospects and the risks and challenges Swvl may encounter.
 
   
The mass transit ridesharing market is still in relatively early stages of growth and if the market does not continue to grow, grows more slowly than Swvl expects or fails to grow as large as Swvl expects, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
 
   
If Swvl fails to cost-effectively attract and retain qualified drivers to use its platform, or to increase utilization of Swvl’s platform by Swvl’s currently contracted drivers, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be harmed.
 
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Table of Contents
   
If Swvl fails to cost-effectively attract and retain new riders or to increase utilization of its platform by existing riders, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be harmed.
 
   
Swvl depends on its key personnel and other highly skilled personnel, and if Swvl fails to attract, retain, motivate or integrate its personnel, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
 
   
Swvl’s reputation, brand and the network effects among the drivers and riders using Swvl’s platform are important to its success, and if Swvl is not able to maintain and continue developing its reputation, brand and network effects, its business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
 
   
Swvl’s growth strategy will subject it to additional costs, compliance requirements and risks, and Swvl’s expansion plans may not be successful.
 
   
Swvl has not historically maintained insurance coverage for its operations. Swvl may not be able to mitigate the risks facing its business and could incur significant uninsured losses, which could adversely affect its business, financial condition and operating results.
 
   
Any actual or perceived security or privacy breach could interrupt Swvl’s operations and adversely affect its reputation, brand, business, financial condition and operating results. Swvl has previously experienced a data breach that resulted in the exposure of its customers’ personal information.
 
   
If Swvl fails to effectively predict rider demand, to set pricing and routing accordingly or to run routes that are consistent with the availability of drivers using its platform, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
 
   
If Swvl is not able to successfully develop new offerings on its platform and enhance its existing offerings, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
 
   
Swvl’s metrics and estimates, including the key metrics included in this Report, are subject to inherent challenges in measurement, and real or perceived inaccuracies in those metrics may harm Swvl’s reputation and negatively affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
 
   
Any failure to offer high-quality user support may harm Swvl’s relationships with users and could adversely affect Swvl’s reputation, brand, business, financial condition, and operating results.
 
   
Systems failures and resulting interruptions in the availability of Swvl’s website, applications, platform, or offerings could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results.
 
   
If Swvl is unable to make acquisitions and investments or successfully integrate them into its business, or if Swvl enters into strategic transactions that do not achieve its objectives, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
 
   
Swvl has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. If for any reason Swvl is unable to remediate these material weaknesses and otherwise to maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting in the future, Swvl’s ability to produce accurate and timely consolidated financial statements may be impaired, which may harm Swvl’s operating results, Swvl’s ability to operate its business or investors’ views of Swvl.
 
2

Table of Contents
   
Uncertainties with respect to the legal systems in the jurisdictions in which Swvl operates, including changes in laws and the adoption and interpretation of new laws and regulations, could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
 
   
As Swvl expands its offerings, it may become subject to additional laws and regulations, and any actual or perceived failure by Swvl to comply with such laws and regulations or manage the increased costs associated with such laws and regulations could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results.
 
   
Failure to protect or enforce Swvl’s intellectual property rights could harm Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
 
   
Claims by others that Swvl infringed their proprietary technology or other intellectual property rights could harm Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
 
   
Changes in laws or regulations relating to privacy, data protection or the protection or transfer of personal data, or any actual or perceived failure by Swvl to comply with such laws and regulations or any other obligations relating to privacy, data protection or the protection or transfer of personal data, could adversely affect Swvl’s business.
 
   
Swvl’s business would be adversely affected if the drivers using its platform were classified as employees.
 
   
The
COVID-19
pandemic and related responsive measures have negatively impacted, and may in the future negatively impact, Swvl’s business.
 
   
Swvl is an “emerging growth company”, and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make Swvl Securities less attractive to investors. As a foreign private issuer, Swvl is not subject to U.S. proxy rules and is subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.
 
   
The other risks and uncertainties are discussed in this “Risk Factors” section.
Risks Related to Operational Factors Affecting Swvl
Swvl’s limited operating history and evolving business make it particularly difficult to evaluate Swvl’s prospects and the risks and challenges Swvl may encounter.
While Swvl has primarily focused on mass transit ridesharing services since Swvl launched in 2017, Swvl’s business continues to evolve. Beginning in 2020, Swvl reevaluated and adjusted its pricing methodologies and expanded its business offerings to include transport as a service (“TaaS”) and (in the future) software as a service (“SaaS”). While it is difficult to evaluate the prospects and risks of any business, Swvl’s relatively new and evolving business makes it particularly difficult to assess Swvl’s prospects and the risks and challenges it may encounter. Risks and challenges Swvl has faced or expects to face include its ability to:
 
   
forecast its revenue and budget for and manage expenses;
 
   
attract new qualified drivers and new riders to use its platform and have existing qualified drivers and riders continue to use its platform in a cost-effective manner;
 
   
comply with existing or developing and new or modified laws and regulations applicable to Swvl’s business and the data it processes, including in jurisdictions where such regulations may still be developing or changing rapidly;
 
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manage its platform and business assets and expenses in light of the
COVID-19
pandemic and related public health measures issued by various jurisdictions, including travel bans, travel restrictions, and
shelter-in-place
orders, as well as maintain demand for and confidence in the safety of Swvl’s platform during and following the
COVID-19
pandemic;
 
   
plan for and manage expenditures for Swvl’s current and future offerings, including expenses relating to Swvl’s growth strategy;
 
   
deploy and ensure utilization of the vehicles operating on Swvl’s platform;
 
   
anticipate and respond to macroeconomic changes and changes in the markets in which Swvl operates;
 
   
maintain and enhance the value of Swvl’s reputation and brand;
 
   
effectively manage Swvl’s growth and business operations, including the impacts of the
COVID-19
pandemic on Swvl’s business;
 
   
successfully expand Swvl’s geographic reach;
 
   
successfully expand Swvl’s TaaS business and launch Swvl’s SaaS business;
 
   
hire, integrate and retain talented personnel; and
 
   
successfully develop new platform features and offerings to enhance the experience of riders, drivers and corporate customers (as well as schools and municipalities).
If Swvl fails to address the risks and difficulties that it faces, including those associated with the challenges listed above as well as those described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected. Further, because Swvl has limited historical financial data, operates in a rapidly evolving market and its growth strategy is premised on rapid international expansion, any predictions about Swvl’s future revenue and expenses may not be as accurate as they would be if Swvl had a longer operating history or operated in a more predictable market. If Swvl’s assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which Swvl uses to plan and operate its business, are incorrect or change, or if it does not address these risks successfully, Swvl’s operating results could differ materially from its expectations and Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
The
COVID-19
pandemic and related responsive measures have disrupted and negatively impacted, and may in the future disrupt and negatively impact, Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results. Swvl cannot predict the extent to which the pandemic and related effects may in the future adversely impact its business, financial condition and operating results, and the execution of Swvl’s strategic objectives.
The ongoing
COVID-19
pandemic and related responsive measures (
e.g.
, travel bans, travel restrictions and
shelter-in-place
orders) have negatively impacted Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results. The pandemic and these related responses continue to evolve and have caused, and may in the future cause, decreased demand for Swvl’s platform relative to
pre-COVID-19
levels and significant volatility and disruption of financial markets.
The
COVID-19
pandemic has subjected Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results to several risks, including, but not limited to the following:
 
   
Declines in mobility due to
COVID-19,
including commuting, local travel, and business travel, have resulted in decreased demand for Swvl’s platform. Changes in travel trends and behavior arising from
COVID-19,
including the impact of new variants, may develop or persist over time, which may further contribute to this adverse effect in the future.
 
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The measures Swvl previously took in response to the
COVID-19
pandemic adversely affected Swvl’s business and operating results. For example, in the first quarter of 2020, Swvl temporarily suspended its usual services, other than to certain key business customers, and operated reduced-service for essential workers at no charge. Although regular service has largely resumed, in the future there may be repeated disruption arising from the
COVID-19
pandemic and related responsive measures that may require Swvl to suspend or limit its services again, which would adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
 
   
Changes in driver behavior during the
COVID-19
pandemic led to reduced levels of driver availability on Swvl’s platform, beginning in the first quarter of 2020. As a result, at the time Swvl was required to offer additional incentives to drivers to continue operating on Swvl’s platform. Any future reduction in driver availability due to the
COVID-19
pandemic may require Swvl to increase prices or provide additional incentives to attract and retain drivers and riders, which may adversely affect its business, financial condition and operating results.
 
   
Responsive measures to the
COVID-19
pandemic caused Swvl to modify its business practices by having corporate employees in nearly all office locations work remotely, limiting employee travel and canceling or postponing events and meetings, or holding them virtually. Swvl may be required to or choose voluntarily to take additional actions for the health and safety of its workforce and users of its platform, including after the pandemic subsides, whether in response to government orders or based on Swvl’s determinations. If these measures result in decreased productivity, harm Swvl’s company culture, adversely affect Swvl’s ability to timely and accurately report its financial statements or maintain internal controls, or otherwise negatively affect Swvl’s business, Swvl’s financial condition, and operating results could be adversely affected.
As the severity, magnitude, and duration of the
COVID-19
pandemic, the resulting public health responses and its economic consequences remain uncertain and difficult to predict, the pandemic’s impact on Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results, as well as its impact on Swvl’s ability to successfully execute its business strategies and initiatives, also remains uncertain and difficult to predict. As the countries in which Swvl operates have reopened, the recovery of the economy and Swvl’s business have fluctuated and varied by geography. Further, the ultimate impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic on the riders, drivers and other users of Swvl’s platform, as well as its employees, business, financial condition and operating results depends on many factors that are not within Swvl’s control, including, but not limited, to: governmental, business and individuals’ actions that have been and continue to be taken in response to the pandemic (including restrictions on travel and transport and modified workplace activities); the impact of the pandemic and actions taken in response thereto on local or regional economies, travel and economic activity; the speed and efficacy of vaccine distribution; the availability of government funding programs; evolving laws and regulations regarding
COVID-19,
including those related to disclosure and notification; general economic uncertainty in key markets and financial market volatility; volatility in global economic conditions and levels of economic growth; the duration of the pandemic; the extent of any virus mutations or new variants of
COVID-19;
and the pace of recovery when the
COVID-19
pandemic subsides.
Several countries in which Swvl operates and plans to operate in the future have been subject to political and economic instability.
Swvl has historically conducted most of its business operations in Egypt, Pakistan and Kenya, and its growth strategy is premised on the rapid introduction of its platform into both emerging and developed markets. Several of the countries in which Swvl operates or plans to operate its business have previously, and in the future may be, subject to instances of political instability, civil unrest, hostilities, terrorist activities and economic volatility. Any such events may lead to, among other things, declines in rider and driver demand for Swvl’s platform, whether arising from safety concerns, a drop in consumer confidence or otherwise, a general deterioration of economic conditions, currency volatility or adverse changes to the political and regulatory environment. Any such developments and any other forms of political or economic instability in Swvl’s markets may harm Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
 
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Swvl faces competition and could lose market share to competitors, which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl believes that its principal competition for ridership is public transportation services. Swvl’s business model is premised in part on promoting the safety, efficiency and convenience of its offerings to convert public transportation users into riders on Swvl’s platform. While Swvl has previously been successful in attracting and retaining new riders, public transportation is often available at a lower price and with a greater variety of routes than the rides Swvl offers. In addition, public transportation operators in Swvl’s markets may in the future make improvements or implement measures to enhance the safety, efficiency and convenience of their networks. If current and potential riders do not view the advantages of Swvl’s platform as outweighing the difference in price, or if the successful introduction of such improvements or measures weakens the competitive advantages of Swvl’s offerings, Swvl may be unable to retain existing riders or attract new riders and its business, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.
Swvl also faces competition from other ridesharing companies and car hire and taxi companies. The ridesharing market in particular is intensely competitive and is characterized by rapid changes in technology, shifting rider needs and preferences and frequent introductions of new services and offerings. Swvl expects competition to increase, both from existing competitors and new entrants in the markets in which Swvl operates or plans to operate, and such competitors may be well-established and enjoy greater resources or other strategic advantages. If Swvl is unable to anticipate or successfully react to these competitive challenges in a timely manner, Swvl’s competitive position could weaken, or fail to improve, and Swvl could experience a decline in revenue or growth stagnation that could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Certain of Swvl’s current and potential competitors have greater financial, technical, marketing, research and development and other resources, greater name recognition, longer operating histories or a larger global user base than Swvl does. Such competitors may be able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of offerings and offer lower prices in certain markets than Swvl does, which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results. These and other factors may allow Swvl’s competitors to derive greater revenue and profits from their existing user bases, attract and retain qualified drivers and riders at lower costs or respond more quickly to new and emerging technologies and trends. Current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative or strategic relationships, or consolidate, amongst themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources and offerings.
Swvl believes that its ability to compete effectively depends upon many factors both within and beyond Swvl’s control, including:
 
   
the popularity, utility, ease of use, performance and reliability of Swvl’s offerings;
 
   
Swvl’s reputation, including the perceived safety of Swvl’s platform, and brand strength;
 
   
Swvl’s pricing models and the prices of its offerings;
 
   
Swvl’s ability to manage its business and operations during the ongoing
COVID-19
pandemic and recovery as well as in response to related governmental, business and individuals’ actions that continue to evolve (including restrictions on travel and transport and modified workplace activities);
 
   
Swvl’s ability to attract and retain qualified drivers and riders to use its platform;
 
   
Swvl’s ability to develop new offerings, including the expansion of its TaaS business and launch of its SaaS business;
 
   
Swvl’s ability to continue leveraging and enhancing its data analytics capabilities;
 
   
Swvl’s ability to establish and maintain relationships with strategic partners and third-party service providers;
 
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Swvl’s ability to deploy and ensure utilization of the vehicles operating on its platform;
 
   
changes mandated by, or that Swvl elects to make to address, legislation, regulatory authorities or litigation, including settlements, judgments, injunctions and consent decrees;
 
   
Swvl’s ability to attract, retain and motivate talented employees;
 
   
Swvl’s ability to raise additional capital as needed; and
 
   
acquisitions or consolidation within Swvl’s industry.
If Swvl is unable to compete successfully, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
The mass transit ridesharing market is still in relatively early stages of growth and if the market does not continue to grow, grows more slowly than Swvl expects or fails to grow as large as Swvl expects, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Prior to
COVID-19,
the mass transit ridesharing market was growing rapidly, but it is still relatively new, and it is uncertain to what extent market acceptance will continue to grow, if at all, particularly after the
COVID-19
pandemic. Swvl’s success depends to a substantial extent on the willingness of people to widely adopt mass transit ridesharing. If the public does not perceive Swvl’s offerings as beneficial, or chooses not to adopt them as a result of concerns regarding public health or safety, affordability or for other reasons, then the market for Swvl’s offerings may not further develop, may develop more slowly than Swvl expects or may not achieve the growth potential Swvl expects. Any of the foregoing risks and challenges could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
If Swvl fails to cost-effectively attract and retain qualified drivers to use its platform, or to increase utilization of Swvl’s platform by existing drivers using its platform, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be harmed.
Swvl’s continued growth depends in part on its ability to cost-effectively attract and retain qualified drivers who satisfy Swvl’s screening criteria and procedures to use its platform and to increase utilization of Swvl’s platform by existing drivers.
To attract and retain qualified drivers to use its platform, Swvl has, among other things, offered bonus payments and other incentives to high-performing drivers, and temporarily provided financial assistance to support drivers during the
COVID-19
pandemic. Government and private business actions in response to the
COVID-19
pandemic, such as travel bans, travel restrictions,
shelter-in-place
orders, increased reliance on work- from-home rather than working in offices, and people and businesses electing to move away from more densely populated cities, have decreased and may in the future decrease utilization of Swvl’s platform by riders. If Swvl does not continue to provide drivers with compelling opportunities to earn income and other incentive programs for using its platform, or if drivers become dissatisfied with Swvl’s requirements for drivers to use its platform, Swvl may fail to attract new drivers to use its platform, retain current drivers to use its platform or increase their utilization of its platform, or Swvl may experience complaints, negative publicity, or services disruptions that could adversely affect its users and its business.
The incentives Swvl provides to attract drivers could fail to attract and retain qualified drivers to use its platform or fail to increase utilization of its platform by existing drivers, or could have other unintended adverse consequences. In addition, changes in certain laws and regulations, labor and employment laws, licensing requirements or background check requirements, may result in a shift or decrease in the pool of qualified drivers, which may result in increased competition for the services of qualified drivers or higher costs of recruitment,
 
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operation and retention with respect to drivers providing services through the Swvl platform. Other factors outside of Swvl’s control, such as the
COVID-19
pandemic or other concerns about personal health and safety, or concerns about the availability of government or other assistance programs if drivers continue to drive using Swvl’s platform, may also reduce the number of drivers available through Swvl’s platform or utilization of Swvl’s platform by drivers, or impact Swvl’s ability to attract new drivers to use its platform. If Swvl fails to attract qualified drivers to use its platform on favorable terms, fails to increase utilization of its platform by existing drivers or loses qualified drivers using its platform to competitors, Swvl may not be able to meet the demand of riders, including maintaining competitive prices for riders, and Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
If Swvl fails to cost-effectively attract and retain new riders or to increase utilization of its platform by existing riders, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be harmed.
Swvl’s success depends in part on its ability to cost-effectively attract and retain new riders and increase utilization of Swvl’s platform by current riders. Riders have a wide variety of options for transportation, including public transportation, taxis and other ridesharing offerings. Rider preferences may also change from time to time with the advent of new mobility technologies, different behaviors and attitudes towards the environment and new urban planning practices (including increased focus on public transportation and public-private partnerships with respect to mobility). To expand its rider base, Swvl must appeal to new riders who have historically used other forms of transportation or other ridesharing platforms. Swvl believes that its paid marketing initiatives have been critical in promoting awareness of Swvl’s brand and offerings, which in turn leads to new riders using Swvl for the first time and drives rider Utilization (calculated as Total Bookings divided by Total Available Seats, over the period of measurement). Further, as Swvl continues to expand into new geographic areas, it will be relying in part on referrals from existing riders to attract new riders. However, Swvl’s brand and ability to build trust with existing and new riders may be adversely affected by complaints and negative publicity about Swvl, its offerings, its policies, including its pricing algorithms, drivers using its platform, or its competitors, even if factually incorrect or based on isolated incidents. Further, if existing and new riders do not perceive the transportation services provided by drivers using Swvl’s platform to be reliable, safe and affordable, or if Swvl fails to offer new and relevant offerings and features on its platform, Swvl may not be able to attract or retain riders or to increase their utilization of its platform. Further, government and private business actions in response to the
COVID-19
pandemic, such as travel bans, travel restrictions,
shelter-in-place
orders, increased reliance on work-from-home rather than working in offices, and people and businesses electing to move away from more densely populated cities, have decreased and may in the future decrease utilization of Swvl’s platform by riders including longer term.
As Swvl continues to expand into new geographic areas, it will be relying in part on referrals from existing riders to attract new riders, and therefore must ensure that its existing riders remain satisfied with its offerings. If Swvl fails to continue to grow its rider base, retain existing riders or increase the overall utilization of its platform by existing riders, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl depends on its key personnel and other highly skilled personnel, and if Swvl fails to attract, retain, motivate or integrate its personnel, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl’s success depends in part on the continued service of its
co-founder
and Chief Executive Officer, senior management team, key technical employees and other highly skilled personnel and on Swvl’s ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate, retain and integrate highly qualified personnel for all areas of its organization. Swvl may not be successful in attracting and retaining qualified personnel to fulfill its current or future needs, and actions Swvl takes in response to the impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic on Swvl’s business may harm Swvl’s reputation or impact its ability to recruit qualified personnel in the future. Please see the section entitled “The
COVID-19
pandemic and related responsive measures have disrupted and negatively impacted, and may in the future disrupt and negatively impact, Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results. Swvl cannot predict the extent to which the pandemic and related effects may in the future adversely impact its business, financial condition and operating results, and the execution of Swvl’s strategic objectives.” Swvl’s competitors may be successful in recruiting and hiring members of Swvl’s management team or other key employees, and it may be difficult to find suitable replacements on a timely basis, on competitive terms, or at all. If Swvl is unable to attract and retain the necessary personnel, particularly in critical areas of its business, Swvl may not achieve its strategic goals.
 
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Swvl faces intense competition for highly skilled personnel. To attract and retain top talent, Swvl has had to offer, and Swvl believes it needs to continue to offer, competitive compensation and benefits packages. Job candidates and existing personnel often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of Swvl’s equity or equity awards declines or Swvl is unable to provide competitive compensation packages, Swvl’s ability to attract and retain highly qualified personnel may be adversely affected and Swvl may experience increased attrition. Swvl may need to invest significant amounts of cash and equity to attract and retain new employees and expend significant time and resources to identify, recruit, train and integrate such employees, and Swvl may never realize returns on these investments. If Swvl is unable to effectively manage its hiring needs or successfully integrate new hires, Swvl’s efficiency, ability to meet forecasts and employee morale, productivity and retention could suffer, which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl’s reputation, brand and the network effects among the drivers and riders using Swvl’s platform are important to its success, and if Swvl is not able to maintain and continue developing its reputation, brand and network effects, its business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl believes that building a strong reputation and brand as a safe, reliable and affordable platform and continuing to increase the strength of the network effects among the drivers and riders using Swvl’s platform (
i.e.
, the advantages that derive from having more drivers and riders using Swvl’s platform) are critical to its ability to attract and retain qualified drivers and riders. The successful development of Swvl’s reputation, brand and network effects depends on a number of factors, many of which are outside Swvl’s control. Negative perception of Swvl or its platform may harm Swvl’s reputation, brand and network effects, including as a result of:
 
   
complaints or negative publicity about Swvl or drivers or riders on its platform, its offerings or its policies and guidelines, including Swvl’s practices and policies with respect to drivers, or the ridesharing industry, even if factually incorrect or based on isolated incidents;
 
   
illegal, negligent, reckless or otherwise inappropriate behavior by drivers, riders or third parties;
 
   
a failure to offer riders competitive pricing and convenient service;
 
   
a failure to provide the range of routes, dynamic routing, and ride types sought by riders;
 
   
actual or perceived inaccuracies in demand prediction and other defects or errors in Swvl’s platform;
 
   
concerns by riders or drivers about the safety of ridesharing and Swvl’s platform, including in light of the
COVID-19
pandemic;
 
   
actual or perceived disruptions in Swvl’s platform, site outages, payment disruptions or other incidents that impact the reliability of Swvl’s offerings;
 
   
failure to protect Swvl’s customer personal data, or other privacy or data security breaches;
 
   
litigation involving, or investigations by regulators into, Swvl’s business;
 
   
users’ lack of awareness of, or compliance with, Swvl’s policies;
 
   
Swvl’s policies or changes thereto that users or others perceive as overly restrictive, unclear or inconsistent with Swvl’s values or mission or that are not clearly articulated;
 
   
a failure to enforce Swvl’s policies in a manner that users perceive as effective, fair and transparent;
 
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a failure to operate Swvl’s business in a way that is consistent with Swvl’s stated values and mission;
 
   
inadequate or unsatisfactory user support service experiences;
 
   
illegal or otherwise inappropriate behavior by Swvl’s management team or other employees or contractors;
 
   
negative responses by drivers or riders to new offerings on Swvl’s platform;
 
   
a failure to balance the interests of driver and riders;
 
   
accidents or other negative incidents involving the use of Swvl’s platform;
 
   
perception of Swvl’s treatment of employees or contractors and Swvl’s response to employee sentiment related to political or social causes or actions of management;
 
   
political or social policies or activities; or
 
   
any of the foregoing with respect to Swvl’s competitors, to the extent such resulting negative perception affects the public’s perception of Swvl or its industry as a whole.
If Swvl does not successfully maintain and develop its brand, reputation and network effects and successfully differentiate its offerings from the offerings of competitors, Swvl’s business may not grow, Swvl may not be able to compete effectively and it could lose existing qualified drivers or existing riders or fail to attract new qualified drivers or new riders to use its platform, any of which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl’s company culture has contributed to its success and if Swvl cannot maintain this culture as it grows, its business, financial condition and operating results could be harmed.
Swvl believes that its culture, which promotes proactivity, taking ownership and putting riders and drivers first has been critical to its success. Swvl faces a number of challenges that may affect its ability to sustain its corporate culture, including:
 
   
failure to identify, attract, reward and retain people in leadership positions in Swvl’s organization who share and further Swvl’s culture, values and mission;
 
   
Swvl’s rapid growth strategy, which involves increasing the size and geographic dispersion of Swvl’s workforce;
 
   
shelter-in-place
orders in certain jurisdictions where Swvl operates that have required many of Swvl’s employees to work remotely, as well as return to work arrangements and workplace strategies;
 
   
the inability to achieve adherence to Swvl’s internal policies and core values, including Swvl’s diversity, equity and inclusion practices;
 
   
competitive pressures to move in directions that may divert Swvl from its mission, vision and values;
 
   
the continued challenges of the rapidly-evolving mass-transit ridesharing industry;
 
   
the increasing need to develop expertise in new areas of business and operate across borders;
 
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potential negative perception of Swvl’s treatment of employees or Swvl’s response to employee sentiment related to political or social causes or actions of management;
 
   
changes to employee work arrangements in response to
COVID-19;
and
 
   
the integration of new personnel and businesses from potential acquisitions.
If Swvl is not able to maintain its corporate culture, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl’s growth strategy will subject it to additional costs, compliance requirements and risks, and Swvl’s plans may not be successful.
Swvl intends to pursue a rapid growth strategy to expand its operations into new international markets. In 2022, Swvl aims to expand its Swvl Retail and Swvl Travel offerings in countries in the Middle East and Latin America, and to introduce its Swvl Business offerings in countries in Latin America, Western Europe and Southeast Asia. Operating in a large number of countries will require significant attention of Swvl’s management to oversee operations over a broad geographic area with varying legal and regulatory environments, competitive dynamics and cultural norms and customs and will place significant burdens on Swvl’s operations, engineering, finance and legal and compliance functions. Swvl may incur significant operating expenses as a result of its international presence and its expansion plans will be subject to a variety of challenges, including:
 
   
recruitment and retention of talented and capable employees in foreign countries while maintaining Swvl’s company culture in each of its markets;
 
   
competition from local incumbents with existing knowledge of local markets that may market and operate more effectively and may enjoy greater local affinity or awareness;
 
   
differing rider and driver demand dynamics, which may make Swvl’s offerings less successful;
 
   
the need to adapt to new markets, including the need to localize Swvl’s offerings and marketing efforts to the preferences of local riders and drivers;
 
   
public health concerns or emergencies, including the
COVID-19
pandemic and other highly communicable diseases or viruses;
 
   
compliance with varying laws and regulatory standards, including with respect to data privacy, cybersecurity, tax, trade compliance, environmental and other vehicle standards and local regulatory restrictions;
 
   
the risk that local laws and business practices favor local competitors;
 
   
compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the “FCPA”) and similar laws in other jurisdictions;
 
   
obtaining any required government approvals, licenses or other authorizations;
 
   
varying levels of Internet and mobile technology adoption and infrastructure;
 
   
currency exchange restrictions or costs and exchange rate fluctuations;
 
   
political, economic, or social instability, which may cause disruptions to Swvl’s business;
 
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operating in jurisdictions with reduced, nonexistent or unenforceable protection for intellectual property rights or where Swvl does not have registered intellectual property rights in its brand and/or technology; and
 
   
limitations on the repatriation and investment of funds as well as foreign currency exchange restrictions.
Swvl’s limited experience in operating its business in multiple countries increases the risk that any potential expansion efforts that Swvl may undertake will not be successful and may require Swvl to terminate its operations in certain markets. Swvl intends to invest substantial time and resources to expand its operations internationally. As a result, if Swvl is unable to manage these risks effectively, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
If Swvl fails to effectively manage its growth and optimize its organizational structure, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Since its launch in 2017, Swvl has experienced rapid growth in its business, revenues and the number of users on its platform. Swvl expects this growth to continue following the recovery of the world economy from the
COVID-19
pandemic. This growth has placed, and will continue to place, significant demands on Swvl’s management and Swvl’s operational and financial infrastructure. The steps Swvl takes to manage its business operations, including policies for employees, and to align Swvl’s operations with Swvl’s strategies for growth, may adversely affect Swvl’s reputation and brand and its ability to recruit, retain and motivate highly skilled personnel.
Swvl’s ability to manage growth and business operations effectively and to integrate new employees, technologies and acquisitions into its existing business will require Swvl to continue to expand its operational and financial infrastructure and to continue to retain, attract, train, motivate and manage employees. Continued growth could strain Swvl’s ability to develop and improve its operational, financial and management controls, enhance its reporting systems and procedures, recruit, train and retain highly skilled personnel and maintain user satisfaction. Additionally, if Swvl does not effectively manage the growth of its business and operations, then Swvl’s reputation, brand, business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl has not historically maintained insurance coverage for its operations. Swvl may not be able to mitigate the risks facing its business and could incur significant uninsured losses, which could adversely affect its business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl does not currently maintain any insurance policies to cover general business liabilities, business interruptions, crime, losses of key personnel or security breaches and incidents relating to its network systems or operations. As a result, any losses arising from or relating to, among other things, personal injury, property damage, labor and employment disputes, commercial disputes, fraudulent transactions or other criminal activity, business interruptions, noncompliance with applicable laws and regulations, infringement or misappropriation of intellectual property or security or privacy breaches, or the successful assertion of one or more claims against Swvl related to any of the foregoing, could require Swvl to service such losses or claims using internal resources, which would have an adverse effect on Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl’s business depends on insurance coverage which is independently required to be maintained by the drivers using its platform.
Swvl is in the process of obtaining coverage for general business liabilities and cyber insurance. Swvl is also evaluating whether other types of insurance coverage may be appropriate for its business, such as transportation network company insurance. Nevertheless, Swvl may not obtain enough insurance to adequately mitigate the operations-related risks it faces, and some operations-related risks may not be covered at all. Swvl may have to pay high premiums, self-insured retentions or deductibles for the coverage Swvl does obtain. Swvl also may be unable to obtain cyber insurance coverage in certain countries at commercially reasonable rates or at all, and it may experience losses as a result. Additionally, if any of Swvl’s insurance providers becomes insolvent, such providers could be unable to pay any operations-related claims that Swvl makes. Certain losses may be excluded from insurance coverage.
 
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While Swvl operates in seven countries (not including the countries of operation of Shotl Transportation, S.L. (“Shotl”) and Viapool Inc. (“Viapool”), two companies which Swvl acquired controlling interests in November 2021 and January 2022, respectively, or Door2DoorGmbH (“door2door”), a company which Swvl announced a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in March 2022 and that is expected to be completed in Q2 2022), Swvl maintains and provides medical insurance for all drivers and riders using its platform only in Egypt. To do so, Swvl relies on a limited number of third-party insurance service providers to service related claims. If any of Swvl’s third-party insurance service providers fails to service claims to Swvl’s expectations, discontinues or increases the cost of coverage or changes the terms of such coverage in a manner unfavorable to drivers, riders or to Swvl, Swvl cannot guarantee that it would be able to secure replacement coverage or services on reasonable terms in an acceptable time frame or at all. If Swvl cannot find alternate third-party insurance service providers on acceptable terms, Swvl may incur additional expenses related to servicing such ride-related claims using internal resources.
Insurance providers have raised premiums and deductibles for many types of claims, coverages and for a variety of commercial risk and are likely to do so in the future. As a result, Swvl’s insurance and claims expense could increase, or Swvl may decide to raise its deductibles or self-insured retentions when policies are renewed or replaced to manage pricing pressure. Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected if (i) cost per claim, premiums or the number of claims significantly exceeds Swvl’s historical experience, (ii) Swvl experiences a claim in excess of Swvl’s coverage limits, (iii) Swvl’s insurance providers fail to pay on Swvl’s insurance claims, (iv) Swvl experiences a claim for which coverage is not provided, (v) the number of claims and average claim cost under Swvl’s deductibles or self-insured retentions differs from historic averages or (vi) an insurance policy is cancelled or not renewed.
Illegal, improper or otherwise inappropriate activity of riders, drivers or other users, whether or not occurring while utilizing Swvl’s platform, could expose Swvl to liability and harm its business, brand, financial condition and operating results.
Illegal, improper or otherwise inappropriate activities by riders, drivers or other users, including the activities of individuals who may have previously engaged with, but are not then receiving or providing services offered through, Swvl’s platform could adversely affect Swvl’s brand, business, financial condition and operating results. These activities may include assault, theft, unauthorized use or sharing of rider or driver accounts and other misconduct. Such conduct could expose Swvl to liability or adversely affect Swvl’s brand or reputation.
While Swvl has taken measures to guard against these illegal, improper or otherwise inappropriate activities, these measures may prove inadequate to prevent such activities or Swvl may not be successful in implementing them effectively. Although Swvl requires certain qualification processes for drivers using its platform, including submission of criminal record checks in certain jurisdictions, these qualification processes may not expose all potentially relevant information and may be limited in certain jurisdictions according to national and local laws, and Swvl may fail to conduct such qualification processes adequately or identify information that could be relevant to a determination of driver eligibility.
Further, any negative publicity related to the foregoing, whether an incident occurred on Swvl’s platform, on Swvl’s competitors’ platforms, or on any ridesharing platform, could adversely affect Swvl’s reputation and brand or public perception of the ridesharing industry as a whole, which could negatively affect demand for Swvl’s platform and potentially lead to increased regulatory or litigation exposure. Any of the foregoing risks could harm Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Changes to Swvl’s pricing could adversely affect its ability to attract or retain qualified drivers and riders to use its platform.
Demand for Swvl’s offerings is sensitive to the price of rides. Many factors, including operating costs, legal and regulatory requirements or constraints and Swvl’s current and future competitors’ pricing and marketing strategies, could significantly affect Swvl’s pricing strategies. Competitors may offer, or may in the future offer, lower-priced or a broader range of offerings or use marketing strategies that enable them to attract or retain qualified drivers and riders at a lower cost than Swvl does.
 
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Swvl uses pricing algorithms to set prices depending on the route, time of day and expected rates of Utilization. In the past, Swvl has made pricing changes and spent significant resources on marketing rider incentives, and there can be no assurance that Swvl will not be forced, through competitive pressures, regulation or otherwise, to reduce the price of rides for riders, to increase the rates Swvl offers for driver services or to increase Swvl’s marketing and other expenses to attract and retain qualified drivers and riders using its platform.
Furthermore, the economic sensitivity of drivers and riders using Swvl’s platform may vary by geographic location, and as Swvl expands into new markets, its pricing methodologies may not enable it to compete effectively in these locations. Local regulations may affect Swvl’s pricing in certain geographic locations, which could amplify these effects. For example, Swvl and other ridesharing companies have made commitments to the Egyptian Competition Authority not to set prices below certain profitability benchmarks with respect to their B2C ridesharing offerings in Egypt. Swvl has launched, and may in the future launch, new pricing strategies and initiatives, such as subscription packages and driver or rider loyalty programs. Swvl has also modified, and may in the future modify, existing pricing methodologies, such as its
up-front
pricing policy. Any of the foregoing actions may not ultimately be successful in attracting and retaining qualified drivers and riders.
Any actual or perceived security or privacy breach could interrupt Swvl’s operations and adversely affect its reputation, brand, business, financial condition and operating results. Swvl has previously experienced a data breach that resulted in the exposure of customer information.
Swvl’s business involves the collection, storage, transmission and other processing of Swvl’s users’ personal and other sensitive data. An increasing number of organizations, including large online and
off-line
merchants and businesses, other large Internet companies, financial institutions and government institutions, have disclosed breaches of their information security systems and other information security incidents, some of which have involved sophisticated and highly targeted attacks. Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to or to sabotage information systems change frequently and may not be known until launched, Swvl may be unable to anticipate, detect or prevent these attacks. Swvl has previously experienced a data breach. In July 2020, unauthorized parties gained access to a Swvl database containing identifiable information of its riders by exploiting a breach in certain third-party software used by Swvl. While such breach has not had a material impact on Swvl’s business or operations and Swvl has since implemented measures designed to restrict any similar data breach, unauthorized parties may in the future gain access to Swvl’s systems or facilities through various means, including gaining unauthorized access into Swvl’s systems or facilities or those of Swvl’s service providers, partners or users on Swvl’s platform, or attempting to fraudulently induce Swvl’s employees, service providers, partners, users or others into disclosing rider names, passwords, payment card information or other sensitive information, which may in turn be used to access Swvl’s information technology systems, or attempting to fraudulently induce Swvl’s employees, partners or others into manipulating payment information, resulting in the fraudulent transfer of funds to criminal actors. In addition, users on Swvl’s platform could have vulnerabilities on their own mobile devices that are entirely unrelated to Swvl’s systems and platform, but could mistakenly attribute their own vulnerabilities to Swvl. Further, breaches experienced by other companies may also be leveraged against Swvl. For example, credential stuffing and ransomware attacks are becoming increasingly common, and sophisticated actors can mask their attacks, making them increasingly difficult to identify and prevent. Certain efforts may be state-sponsored or supported by significant financial and technological resources, making them even more difficult to detect.
Although Swvl has developed systems and processes that are designed to protect users’ data, prevent data loss and prevent other privacy or security breaches, these measures cannot guarantee security. Swvl’s information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to cyberattacks or security breaches, and third parties may be able to access Swvl’s users’ payment card data and other personal information that are accessible through those systems. Swvl is still a growing company and may not have sufficient dedicated personnel or internal oversight to detect, identify, and respond to all privacy or security incidents. Additionally, as Swvl expands its operations, including sharing data with third parties or continuing the work-from-home practices of its employees (including increased use of video conferencing), Swvl’s exposure to cyberattacks or security breaches may increase. Further, employee error, malfeasance or other errors in the storage, use or transmission of personal information could result in an actual or perceived privacy or security breach or other security incident. Although Swvl has policies restricting the access to the personal information it stores, these policies may be breached or prove inadequate.
 
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Any actual or perceived breach of privacy or security could interrupt Swvl’s operations, result in Swvl’s platform being unavailable, result in loss or improper disclosure of data, result in fraudulent transfer of funds, harm Swvl’s reputation and brand, damage Swvl’s relationships with strategic partners and third-party service providers, result in significant legal, regulatory and financial exposure and lead to loss of driver or rider confidence in, or decreased use of, Swvl’s platform, any of which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results. Any breach of privacy or security impacting any entities with which Swvl may share or disclose data could have similar effects. Further, any cyberattacks or security and privacy breaches directed at Swvl’s competitors could reduce confidence in the ridesharing industry as a whole and, as a result, reduce confidence in Swvl.
Additionally, responding to any privacy or security breach, including defending against claims, investigations or litigation in connection with any privacy or security breach, regardless of their merit, could be costly and divert management’s attention. Swvl does not currently maintain any insurance to cover security breaches and incidents or losses relating to its network systems or operations. As a result, the successful assertion of one or more large claims against Swvl could have an adverse effect on Swvl’s reputation, brand, business, financial condition and operating results.
Defects, errors or vulnerabilities in Swvl’s applications, backend systems or other technology systems and those of third-party technology providers could harm Swvl’s reputation and brand and adversely impact Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
The software underlying Swvl’s platform is highly complex and may contain undetected errors or vulnerabilities, some of which may only be discovered after the code has been released. The third-party software that Swvl incorporates into its platform may also be subject to errors or vulnerability. Any errors or vulnerabilities discovered in Swvl’s code or third-party software could result in negative publicity, loss of users, loss of revenue and access or other performance issues. Such vulnerabilities could also be exploited by malicious actors and result in exposure of data of users on Swvl’s platform, or otherwise result in a data breach. Swvl may need to expend significant financial and development resources to analyze, correct, eliminate or work around errors or defects or to address and eliminate vulnerabilities. Any failure to timely and effectively resolve any such errors, defects or vulnerabilities could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results as well as negatively impact Swvl’s reputation or brand.
Swvl relies on various third-party product and service providers and if such third parties do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with Swvl, Swvl’s costs may increase and its business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl’s success depends in part on its relationships with third-party product and service providers. For example, Swvl relies on third-parties to fulfill various marketing, web hosting, payment, communications and data analytics services to support Swvl’s platform. If any of Swvl’s partners terminates its relationship with Swvl, including as a result of
COVID-19-related
impacts to their business and operations or for competitive reasons, or refuses to renew its agreement on commercially reasonable terms, Swvl would need to find an alternate provider, and may not be able to secure similar terms or replace such providers in an acceptable time frame. While Swvl does not own or operate vehicles, in the event that vehicle manufacturers issue recalls or the supply of vehicles or automotive parts is interrupted, including as a result of public health crises, such as the
COVID-19
pandemic, affecting the vehicles operating on Swvl’s platform, the availability of vehicles on Swvl’s platform could become constrained.
In addition, Swvl’s business may be adversely affected to the extent the software and services used by Swvl’s third-party service providers do not meet expectations, contain errors or vulnerabilities, are compromised or experience outages. Swvl cannot be certain that its licensors are not infringing the intellectual property rights of others or that the suppliers and licensors have sufficient rights to the technology in all jurisdictions in which Swvl may operate. If Swvl is unable to obtain or maintain rights to any of this technology because of intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties against suppliers, licensors or Swvl itself, or if Swvl is unable to continue to obtain the technology or enter into new agreements on commercially reasonable terms, Swvl’s ability to develop its platform containing that technology could be severely limited and its business could be harmed. If Swvl is unable to obtain necessary technology from third parties, it may be forced to acquire or develop alternate
 
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technology, which may require significant time and effort and may be of lower quality or performance standards. This would limit and delay Swvl’s ability to provide new or competitive offerings and increase Swvl’s costs. If alternate technology cannot be obtained or developed, Swvl may not be able to offer certain functionality as part of its offerings, which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Any of these risks could increase Swvl’s costs and adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results. Further, any negative publicity related to any of Swvl’s strategic partners and third-party service providers, including any publicity related to quality standards or safety concerns, could adversely affect Swvl’s reputation and brand, and could potentially lead to increased regulatory or litigation exposure.
If Swvl fails to effectively predict rider demand, to set pricing and routing accordingly or to run routes that are consistent with the availability of drivers using its platform, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl relies on its proprietary technology to predict and dynamically update routing in response to changes in demand, to optimize pricing in response to such demand and to maximize
per-vehicle
Utilization. If Swvl is unable to effectively predict and meet rider demand and to update its routing and pricing accordingly, Swvl may lose ridership and its revenues may decrease. In addition, riders’ price sensitivity varies by geographic location, among other factors, and if Swvl is unable to effectively account for such variability in its pricing methodologies, its ability to compete effectively in these locations could be adversely affected. Swvl’s success also depends, in part, on its ability to match route plans with the availability and preferences of the drivers using its platform. If Swvl is unable to determine and allocate routes in a manner consistent with the availability and preferences of such drivers, drivers may reduce or discontinue their participation on Swvl’s platform and may use competitors’ platforms. Any of the foregoing risks could adversely impact Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
If Swvl is not able to successfully develop new offerings on its platform and enhance its existing offerings, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl’s ability to attract new qualified drivers and new riders, retain existing qualified drivers and existing riders and increase utilization of its offerings will depend in part on its ability to successfully create and introduce new offerings and to improve upon and enhance existing offerings. As a result, Swvl may introduce significant changes to its existing offerings or develop and introduce new and unproven offerings. If any of Swvl’s new or enhanced offerings are unsuccessful, including as a result of any inability to obtain and maintain required permits or authorizations or other regulatory constraints or because they fail to generate sufficient return on Swvl’s investments, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Furthermore, new driver or rider demands regarding platform features, the availability of superior competitive offerings or a deterioration in the quality of Swvl’s offerings or ability to bring new or enhanced offerings to market quickly and efficiently could negatively affect the attractiveness of Swvl’s platform and the economics of Swvl’s business, requiring it to make substantial changes to and additional investments in its offerings or business model. In addition, Swvl frequently experiments with and tests different offerings and marketing strategies. If these experiments and tests are unsuccessful, or if the offerings and strategies Swvl introduces based on the results of such experiments and tests do not perform as expected, Swvl’s ability to attract new qualified drivers and new riders, retain existing qualified drivers and existing riders and maintain or increase utilization of Swvl’s offerings may be adversely affected.
Swvl’s market is characterized by rapid technology change, particularly across the SaaS and TaaS offerings, which require it to develop new products and product innovations, and any delays in such development could adversely affect market adoption of Swvl’s products and its financial results. Developing and launching new offerings or enhancements to the existing offerings on Swvl’s platform, such as Swvl’s launch of its TaaS offering in 2020 and its anticipated launch of its SaaS offering for use by corporate customers and other third parties, involves significant risks and uncertainties, including risks related to the reception of such offerings by existing and potential future drivers and riders, increases in operational complexity, unanticipated delays or challenges in implementing such offerings or enhancements, increased strain on Swvl’s operational and internal resources (including an impairment of Swvl’s ability to accurately forecast rider demand and the number of drivers using Swvl’s platform) and negative publicity in the event such new or enhanced offerings are perceived to be unsuccessful. Swvl intends to continue to scale its business rapidly, and significant new initiatives have in the past resulted in, and in the future may result in, operational challenges affecting Swvl’s business.
 
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In addition, developing and launching new offerings and enhancements to Swvl’s existing offerings may involve significant
up-front
capital investments. Such investments may not generate a positive return on investment. Further, from time to time Swvl may reevaluate, discontinue and/or reduce these investments and decide to discontinue one or more of its offerings. Any of the foregoing risks and challenges could negatively impact Swvl’s ability to attract and retain qualified drivers and riders, its ability to increase utilization of its offerings and its visibility into expected operating results, and could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results. Additionally, Swvl’s near-term operating results may be impacted by long-term investments in the future.
Swvl may require additional capital to support the growth of its business, which capital may not be available on terms acceptable to it, or at all. To the extent Swvl obtains additional capital through future issuances of Swvl Securities, such issuances could dilute the interests of existing shareholders.
Since commencing operations in 2017, Swvl has funded its operations and capital expenditures primarily through equity issuances, convertible note issuances and cash generated from operations. To support and grow its business, Swvl must have sufficient capital to continue to make significant investments in new and existing offerings (including by continuing to offer discounts and promotions to riders and drivers) and to fund potential acquisitions. The rapid growth of Swvl’s business has increased Swvl’s use of and need for capital, and Swvl may be required to secure additional financing to continue to grow, both organically and inorganically.
Swvl expects to use the funds it received in connection with the Business Combination to support and grow its business. Receipt of $10 million of those funds is conditioned on the entry into an investment framework agreement between the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the “EBRD”) and Swvl. As a result, it is possible that receipt of the portion of funds that is conditioned on entry into an investment framework agreement with EBRD may not occur for some time or at all. Any delay in or failure to enter into such agreement may result in Swvl needing to seek additional and alternative sources of financing earlier than expected. Such financing may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. In such case, Swvl may not be able to continue to make investments at the rate necessary to sustain Swvl’s growth.
On March 22, 2022, we entered into an equity line financing pursuant to a common stock purchase agreement with B. Riley Principal Capital, LLC (“B. Riley”) pursuant to which B. Riley committed to purchase up to $471.7 million of Ordinary Shares, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the purchase agreement. The Ordinary Shares that may be issued under the purchase agreement may be sold by us to B. Riley at our discretion from time to time over an approximately
24-month
period commencing on the date that a related resale registration statement is declared effective by the SEC. We may ultimately decide to sell all, some, or none of the Ordinary Shares that may be available for us to sell to B. Riley pursuant to the purchase agreement. The purchase price for the shares that we may sell to B. Riley will fluctuate based on the price of our Ordinary Shares. Depending on market liquidity at the time, sales of such shares may cause the trading price of our Ordinary Shares to fall.
If and when we do sell shares to B. Riley, after B. Riley has acquired the shares, B. Riley may resell all, some, or none of those shares at any time or from time to time in its discretion. Therefore, our sales to B. Riley could result in substantial dilution to the interests of other holders of our Ordinary Shares. Additionally, the sale of a substantial number of shares of our Ordinary Shares to B. Riley, or the anticipation of such sales, could make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a price that we might otherwise wish to effect sales. As consideration for B. Riley’s commitment under the purchase agreement to purchase our Ordinary Shares, we issued 386,971 Ordinary Shares to B. Riley and such Ordinary Shares are fully earned and
non-refundable,
even in the event we do not sell any Ordinary Shares to B. Riley under the purchase agreement.
Swvl may issue additional Swvl Securities in the future. For example, Swvl may issue additional Swvl Securities under an employee incentive plan, in the public market, a private placement or as part of an acquisition in which the seller receives Swvl Securities as consideration. The issuance of additional Swvl Securities by Swvl may significantly dilute the equity interests of existing Swvl shareholders; could cause a change in control if a substantial number of Swvl Securities are issued, which may adversely affect prevailing market prices for Swvl Securities.
 
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Swvl’s ability to obtain financing in the future will depend upon, among other things, Swvl’s development efforts, business plans and operating performance and the condition of the capital markets at the time Swvl seeks such financing. Additionally,
COVID-19
may impact Swvl’s access to capital and make raising additional capital more difficult or available only on less favorable terms. Swvl cannot be certain that additional financing will be available to it on favorable terms, or at all. If Swvl is unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to it or within the timeframe it requires, its ability to continue to support its business growth and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited, and Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl’s metrics and estimates, including the key metrics included in this Report, are subject to inherent challenges in measurement, and real or perceived inaccuracies in those metrics may harm Swvl’s reputation and negatively affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl regularly reviews and may adjust its processes for calculating the metrics used to evaluate growth, measure performance and make strategic decisions. These metrics, including Utilization, avoided emissions and driver retention rates, among others, which are calculated using internal company data and have not been evaluated by a third-party. Swvl’s metrics may differ from estimates published by third parties or from similarly titled metrics of Swvl’s competitors due to differences in methodology or the assumptions on which Swvl relies, and Swvl may make material adjustments to its processes for calculating its metrics in order to enhance accuracy, because better information becomes available or for other reasons, which may result in changes to such metrics. The estimates and forecasts Swvl discloses relating to the size and expected growth of Swvl’s addressable market may prove to be inaccurate. Even if the markets in which Swvl competes meet the size estimates and growth Swvl has forecasted, Swvl’s business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all. Additionally, while Swvl may at times create and publish metrics or other disclosures regarding environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters, many of the statements in those voluntary disclosures are based on expectations and assumptions that may or may not be representative of current or actual risks or events or forecasts of expected risks or events, including the costs associated therewith. Such expectations and assumptions are necessarily uncertain given the long timelines involved and the lack of an established single approach to identify, measuring, and reporting on many ESG matters. If investors or analysts do not consider Swvl’s metrics to be accurate representations of its business, or if Swvl discovers material inaccuracies in its metrics, then Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl’s marketing efforts to help grow its business may not be effective.
Promoting awareness of Swvl’s offerings is important to Swvl’s ability to grow its business and to attract new qualified drivers and riders and can be costly. Swvl believes that much of the growth in its rider base and the number of drivers using its platform is attributable to its paid marketing initiatives. Swvl’s marketing efforts currently include offline marketing (such as billboard advertisements and
in-person
promotional events), online marketing (such as social media and Internet-driven advertising campaigns), and partnerships with other businesses, through which Swvl offers promotions and other incentives to the customers of such businesses. As Swvl expands its business into new markets, its marketing initiatives may become increasingly expensive, and generating a meaningful return on those initiatives may be difficult. Even if Swvl successfully increases revenue due to its paid marketing efforts, such an increase may not offset the additional marketing expenses Swvl incurs.
If Swvl’s marketing efforts are not successful in promoting awareness of Swvl’s offerings or attracting new qualified drivers, riders, or corporate customers, or if Swvl cannot cost-effectively manage its marketing expenses, Swvl’s operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected. If Swvl’s marketing efforts successfully increase awareness of its offerings, this could also lead to increased public scrutiny of its business and increase the likelihood of third parties bringing legal proceedings against Swvl. Any of the foregoing risks could harm Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results.
 
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Any failure to offer high-quality user support may harm Swvl’s relationships with users and could adversely affect Swvl’s reputation, brand, business, financial condition, and operating results.
Swvl’s ability to attract and retain drivers, riders and corporate customers to use its platform depends partly on the ease and reliability of its offerings, including its ability to provide high-quality support. Riders, drivers and other users of Swvl’s platform depend on Swvl’s support services to resolve any issues relating to its offerings, such as issues relating to payments or reporting a safety incident. Swvl’s ability to provide adequate and timely support is dependent on its ability to automate support services for simple issues (such as route inquiries) and, for other issues, to retain and deploy third-party service providers who are qualified to support users and sufficiently knowledgeable regarding Swvl’s offerings. As Swvl continues to grow its business and improve and expand its offerings, it will face challenges in providing quality support services at scale. As Swvl expands its offerings into new territories, it will be required to provide support services specific to its offerings and the needs of users in the applicable market. Furthermore, the
COVID-19
pandemic may impact Swvl’s ability to provide adequate and timely support (such as a decrease in the availability of service providers and an increase in response time). Any failure to provide high-quality user support, or a market perception that Swvl does not offer high-quality support, could adversely affect Swvl’s reputation, brand, business, financial condition and operating results.
Systems failures and resulting interruptions in the availability of Swvl’s website, applications, platform, or offerings could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results.
Swvl’s systems, or those of the third parties upon which Swvl relies, may experience service interruptions or degradation because of hardware and software defects or malfunctions, distributed
denial-of-service
and other cyberattacks, human error, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, natural disasters, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, fraud, military or political conflicts, terrorist attacks, computer viruses, ransomware, malware or other events. Swvl’s systems may also be subject to
break-ins,
sabotage, theft and intentional acts of vandalism, including by Swvl’s employees. Some of Swvl’s systems are not fully redundant, and Swvl’s disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities. Any business interruption insurance that Swvl obtains in the future may not be adequate to cover all of Swvl’s losses that may result from interruptions in Swvl’s service due to systems failures and similar events.
Swvl may experience system failures and other events or conditions from time to time that interrupt the availability or reduce or affect the speed or functionality of Swvl’s offerings. These events could result in loss of revenue. A prolonged interruption in the availability or reduction in the availability, speed, or other functionality of Swvl’s offerings could adversely affect Swvl’s business and reputation and could result in the loss of users. Moreover, to the extent that any system failure or similar event results in harm to the users using its platform, Swvl may make voluntary payments to compensate for such harm or the affected users could seek monetary recourse or contractual remedies from Swvl for their losses and such claims, even if unsuccessful, would likely be time-consuming and costly for Swvl to address.
Swvl’s business could be adversely impacted by changes in users’ access to the Internet and mobile devices or unfavorable changes in, or Swvl’s failure to comply with, existing or future laws governing the Internet and mobile devices.
Swvl’s business depends on users’ access to its platform via the Internet and mobile devices. Swvl operates in and plans to expand into markets that may have low levels of Internet penetration or provide limited Internet connectivity in some areas. The price of mobile devices and Internet access may limit Swvl’s potential growth in such markets. Internet infrastructure in such markets may not support, and may be disrupted by, continued growth in the number of Internet users, their frequency of use or their bandwidth requirements. Any such failure in Internet or mobile device accessibility, even for a short period, could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition, or operating results.
Swvl is subject to several laws and regulations specifically governing the Internet and mobile devices that are constantly evolving. Existing and future laws and regulations, or changes thereto, may impede the growth and availability of the Internet and Swvl’s offerings, require Swvl to change its business practices, or raise compliance costs or other costs of doing business. These laws and regulations, which continue to evolve, cover taxation, privacy and data protection, pricing, copyrights, mobile and other communications, advertising practices, consumer
 
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protections, online payment services, and the characteristics and quality of offerings, among other things. Any failure, or perceived failure, by Swvl to comply with any of these laws or regulations could result in damage to Swvl’s reputation and brand, a loss of users, and fines or proceedings by governmental agencies, any of which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl relies on mobile operating systems and application marketplaces to make its mobile applications available to the drivers and riders using its platform. If Swvl does not effectively operate with or receive favorable placements within such application marketplaces and maintain high user reviews, Swvl’s usage or brand recognition could decline and Swvl’s business, financial results and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl depends in part on mobile operating systems, such as Android and iOS, and their respective application marketplaces to make its applications available to drivers and riders using its platform. Any changes in such systems and application marketplaces that degrade the functionality of Swvl’s applications or give preferential treatment to competitors’ applications could adversely affect the usage of Swvl’s platform. If such mobile operating systems or application marketplaces limit or prohibit Swvl from making its applications available to drivers and riders, make changes that degrade the functionality of Swvl’s applications, increase the cost of using its applications, impose terms of use unsatisfactory to Swvl or modify their search or ratings algorithms in ways that are detrimental to it, or if the placement of competitors in such mobile operating systems’ application marketplaces is more prominent than the placement of Swvl’s applications, overall growth in Swvl’s rider or driver base could slow. Swvl’s applications have experienced fluctuations in number of downloads in the past, and Swvl anticipates fluctuations in the future. Any of the foregoing risks could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
As new mobile devices and mobile platforms are released, there is no guarantee that certain mobile devices will continue to support Swvl’s platform or effectively roll out updates to Swvl’s applications. Additionally, Swvl needs to ensure that its offerings are designed to work effectively with a range of mobile technologies, systems, networks, and standards to deliver high-quality applications. Swvl may not be successful in developing or maintaining relationships with key participants in the mobile industry that enhance the experience of drivers and riders. If drivers or riders on Swvl’s platform encounter any difficulty accessing or using Swvl’s applications on their mobile devices, or if Swvl is unable to adapt to changes in popular mobile operating systems, Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results could be adversely affected.
Swvl depends on the interoperability of its platform across third-party applications and services that Swvl does not control.
Swvl’s platform integrates with various communications, ticketing, payment and social media vendors. As Swvl’s offerings expand and evolve, its platform may have an increasing number of integrations with other third-party applications, products and services. Third-party applications, products, and services are constantly evolving, and Swvl may not be able to maintain or modify its platform to ensure its compatibility with third-party offerings following development changes. In addition, some of Swvl’s competitors or third-parties upon which Swvl relies may take actions that disrupt the interoperability of Swvl’s platform with their products or services or exert strong business influence on Swvl’s ability to operate and distribute its platform or the terms on which it does so. As Swvl’s respective products evolve, Swvl expects the types and levels of competition to increase. Should any of Swvl’s competitors or other third-parties modify their products, standards or terms of use in a manner that degrades the functionality or performance of Swvl’s platform or is otherwise unsatisfactory to Swvl or gives preferential treatment to competitive products or services, Swvl’s products, platform, business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
If Swvl is unable to make acquisitions and investments or successfully integrate them into its business, or if Swvl enters into strategic transactions that do not achieve its objectives, Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
As part of its business strategy, Swvl may consider various potential strategic transactions, including acquisitions of businesses, new technologies, services and other assets and strategic investments that complement Swvl’s business. As Swvl grows, it also may explore investments in new technologies, which Swvl may develop or other parties may develop. There is no assurance that such acquired businesses will be successfully integrated into Swvl’s business or generate substantial revenue, or that Swvl’s investments in other technologies will generate returns for its business.
 
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Acquisitions involve numerous risks, any of which could harm Swvl’s business and negatively affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results, including:
 
   
intense competition for suitable acquisition targets, which could increase acquisition costs and adversely affect Swvl’s ability to consummate transactions on favorable or acceptable terms;
 
   
failure or material delay in consummating a transaction;
 
   
transaction-related lawsuits or claims;
 
   
Swvl’s ability to successfully obtain indemnification;
 
   
difficulties in integrating the technologies, operations, existing contracts, and personnel of an acquired company;
 
   
difficulties in retaining key employees or business partners of an acquired company;
 
   
diversion of financial and management resources from existing operations or alternative acquisition opportunities;
 
   
failure to realize the anticipated benefits or synergies of a transaction;
 
   
failure to identify the problems, liabilities, or other shortcomings or challenges of an acquired company or technology, including issues related to intellectual property, data privacy, cybersecurity, regulatory compliance practices, litigation, revenue recognition or other accounting practices, or employee or user issues;
 
   
risks that regulatory bodies may enact new laws or promulgate new regulations that are adverse to an acquired company or business;
 
   
theft of Swvl’s trade secrets or confidential information that Swvl shares with potential acquisition candidates;
 
   
risks that an acquired company or investment in new offerings cannibalizes a portion of Swvl’s existing business; and
 
   
adverse market reaction to an acquisition.
In addition, Swvl may divest businesses or assets or enter into joint ventures, strategic partnerships or other strategic transactions. These types of transactions also present certain risks. For example, Swvl may not achieve the desired strategic, operational, and financial benefits of a divestiture, partnership, joint venture, or other strategic transaction. Further, during the pendency of a divestiture or the integration or separation process of any strategic transaction, Swvl may be subject to risks related to a decline in business or a loss of employees, customers, or suppliers.
If Swvl fails to address the foregoing risks or other problems encountered in connection with past or future acquisitions of businesses, new technologies, services and other assets, strategic investments or other transactions, or if Swvl fails to integrate such acquisitions or investments successfully, or if it is unable to successfully complete other transactions or such transactions do not meet its strategic objectives, its business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.
 
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Swvl’s acquisitions of controlling interests in Shotl and Viapool and announced acquisition of door2door may not be beneficial to Swvl as a result of the cost of integrating geographically disparate operations and the diversion of management’s attention from Swvl’s existing business, among other things.
On August 19, 2021, Swvl announced a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in Shotl Transportation, S.L., a mass transit platform that partners with municipalities and corporations to provide
on-demand
bus and van services across Europe, South America and the Asia-Pacific region. The transaction closed on November 19, 2021.
On November 16, 2021, Swvl announced a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in Viapool Inc., a mass transit platform currently operating in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Santiago, Chile. The transaction closed on January 14, 2022.
On March 24, 2022, Swvl announced a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in door2door, a high-growth mobility operations platform that partners with municipalities, public transit operators, corporations, and automotive companies to optimize shared mobility solutions across Europe. The closing of the door2door transaction is subject to customary closing conditions and is expected to be completed in Q2 2022.
Integration of the Shotl, Viapool and door2door businesses and operations with Swvl’s existing business and operations will be a complex, time-consuming and costly process, particularly given that the acquisition will significantly diversify the geographic areas in which Swvl operates. Failure to successfully integrate the Shotl, Viapool and door2door businesses and operations with Swvl’s existing business and operations in a timely manner may have a material adverse effect on Swvl’s business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Similarly, Swvl’s ongoing acquisition program exposes it to integration risks as well. The difficulties of combining the acquired operations include, among other things:
 
   
failure to realize expected profitability, growth or accretion;
 
   
integrating additional Swvl Business offerings into Swvl’s existing operations;
 
   
coordinating geographically disparate organizations, systems and facilities;
 
   
attracting sufficient platform users in Europe, Brazil, Japan, Argentina and Chile;
 
   
operating in several new jurisdictions and municipalities with unique laws and regulations;
 
   
consolidating corporate, technological and administrative functions;
 
   
the diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;
 
   
rider loss from the acquired businesses; and
 
   
potential environmental or regulatory liabilities and title problems.
In addition, Swvl may not realize all of the anticipated benefits from its acquisition of controlling interests in Shotl, Viapool and door2door, such as cost savings and revenue enhancements, for various reasons, including the fact that Swvl’s diligence was of a limited scope and performed by third party business consultants (and with respect to Shotl, solely with respect to Shotl’s business in Spain), difficulties integrating operations and personnel, higher costs,
COVID-19
related interruption, unknown liabilities and fluctuations in markets.
Swvl does not have written contractual arrangements in place with certain of its historically material customers.
Swvl has provided, and continues to provide, TaaS services to certain corporate customers without a written contract governing such arrangement. These
non-contractual
arrangements with TaaS customers made up approximately 3%, 6% and 7% of Swvl’s revenue in each of fiscal year 2019, fiscal year 2020 and fiscal year 2021,
 
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respectively. While the counterparties have performed under such arrangements without any material disputes, in the event of a dispute, the lack of a written contract could make it particularly difficult for Swvl to enforce its rights under the arrangement, if at all. Swvl is in the process of entering into definitive documentation to govern its relationships with such corporate customers and is setting up internal procedures to ensure that future relationships are governed by written contractual arrangements at the outset. As a result, Swvl expects to be able to reduce the percentage of revenue attributable to TaaS customers without contractual arrangements over time. However, there is no guarantee that existing TaaS customers will agree to enter into definitive documentation, and there are no assurances entry into such definitive documentation would allow Swvl to enforce claims against such counterparties for actions taken prior to entry into such agreements.
Swvl’s business could be adversely affected by natural disasters, public health crises, political crises, economic downturns, or other unexpected events.
A natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire, hurricane, tornado or flood, or significant power outage, could disrupt Swvl’s operations, mobile networks, the Internet or the operations of Swvl’s third-party technology providers. In addition, any public health crises, other epidemics, political crises, such as terrorist attacks, war and other political or social instability, or other catastrophic events could adversely affect Swvl’s operations or the economy as a whole. Moreover, the likelihood of such events may increase as a result of climate change or other systemic impacts. The impact of such events or other disruption to Swvl or its third-party providers’ abilities could result in decreased demand for Swvl’s offerings or a disruption in the provision of Swvl’s offerings, which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results are also subject to general economic conditions in the markets in which it operates. Any deterioration of economic conditions in such markets could lead to, among other things, increased unemployment and decreased consumer spending and commercial activity. As a result, demand for Swvl’s platform by riders and drivers may decline. Swvl cannot predict the timing or duration of any economic slowdown or subsequent economic recovery in the markets in which it operates or intends to operate. An economic downturn resulting in a prolonged recessionary period may adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl’s operations are subject to currency volatility and inflation risk.
The U.S. dollar is Swvl’s presentation currency as a group. Swvl also derives revenues and incurs expenses in other currencies relevant to each country of operations, including Egyptian pounds, Pakistani rupees, and Kenyan shillings. Swvl is therefore subject to foreign currency exchange fluctuations through both translation risk and transaction risk. As a result, Swvl is exposed to the risk that these currencies may appreciate relative to the U.S. dollar or, if such currencies devalue relative to the dollar, that inflation rates may exceed the speed of devaluation, or that the timing of such depreciation may lag behind inflation. The dollar cost of Swvl’s operations would increase in any such event, and Swvl’s dollar-denominated operating results would be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Regulatory, Legal and Tax Factors Affecting Swvl
Swvl has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. If for any reason Swvl is unable to remediate these material weaknesses and otherwise to maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting in the future, Swvl’s ability to produce accurate and timely consolidated financial statements may be impaired, which may harm Swvl’s operating results, Swvl’s ability to operate its business or investors’ views of Swvl.
Prior to the Business Combination, Swvl operated as a private company with the size of accounting and financial reporting personnel, and other resources with which to address its internal controls over financial reporting, being in line with early-stage private companies. In connection with the preparation of its financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021, Swvl and its independent registered public accounting firm identified material weaknesses in Swvl’s internal control over financial reporting related to (1) the sufficiency of resources with an appropriate level of technical accounting and SEC reporting experience, (2) a lack of sufficient financial reporting policies and procedures that are commensurate with IFRS and SEC reporting requirements, and (3) the design and operating effectiveness of IT general controls for information systems that are relevant to the preparation of Swvl’s consolidated financial statements.
 
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The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board has defined a material weakness as a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of Swvl’s financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
Swvl has developed and is in the process of implementing a remediation plan to address these control deficiencies, which will address the underlying causes of Swvl’s material weaknesses. As part of Swvl’s remediation plan, Swvl has hired additional qualified personnel within its finance and accounting functions who are experienced in IFRS and SEC reporting, in addition to starting to conduct training for Swvl personnel with respect to IFRS and SEC financial reporting. Swvl is establishing more robust processes to support its internal control over financial reporting, including sufficient financial reporting policies and procedures that are commensurate with IFRS and SEC reporting requirements. Furthermore, with respect to the effectiveness of Swvl’s IT general controls, Swvl is establishing formal processes and controls for information systems that are key to the preparation of its consolidated financial statements, including access and change controls. If these measures are ineffective, Swvl may be unable to remediate these issues in the anticipated timeframe, which may have an adverse effect on Swvl’s operating results, Swvl’s ability to operate its business or investors’ views of Swvl.
While Swvl performed a preliminary evaluation of its internal control over financial reporting, Swvl was not required to perform an evaluation of internal control over financial reporting in accordance with the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act because Swvl was a private company during the applicable evaluation period ending December 31, 2021. Had such an evaluation been performed, additional control deficiencies may have been identified by Swvl, and those control deficiencies may have also represented one or more material weaknesses.
Uncertainties with respect to the legal systems in the jurisdictions in which Swvl operates, including changes in laws and the adoption and interpretation of new laws and regulations, could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
At present, Swvl conducts the majority of its operations in Egypt, Pakistan and Kenya, but it currently operates in seven countries (not including the countries of operation of Shotl and Viapool, two companies which Swvl acquired controlling interests in November 2021 and January 2022, respectively, or door2door, a company which Swvl announced a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in March 2022 and that is expected to be completed in Q2 2022), and intends to operate in 20 countries by 2025. There are, and will likely continue to be, substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which Swvl operates, including the laws and regulations governing Swvl’s business, the enforcement and performance of contractual arrangements and the protection of intellectual property rights. The legal systems in the countries in which Swvl operates may not be as predictable or developed as that of the United States, and in particular, may not have developed laws and regulations relating to the ridesharing industry. As a result, existing laws and regulations may be applied inconsistently and, in certain circumstances, it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to violate applicable laws and regulations. There can be no assurance that Swvl’s business will not be found to violate applicable laws or regulations in these jurisdictions in the future.
In addition, the jurisdictions in which Swvl has business operations may in the future enact new laws and regulations relating to the Internet, emissions and other environmental matters associated with ridesharing operations, the ridesharing industry generally and the operation of Swvl’s business, and the interpretation and enforcement of such laws may involve significant uncertainties. New laws and regulations that affect Swvl’s existing and proposed future businesses may also be applied retroactively.
Swvl is, and may in the future be, required to hold registrations, licenses, permits and approvals in connection with its business operations. New laws and regulations may be adopted from time to time that require Swvl to obtain registrations, licenses, permits and approvals in addition to those Swvl already holds. Swvl does not hold all of the required licenses and registrations for certain jurisdictions where Swvl operates.
In Egypt, Swvl is subject to Law No. 87 of 2018 and the Executive Regulation by Presidential Decree No. 2180 of 2019 (collectively, “Egyptian Ridesharing Laws”). Pursuant to such Egyptian Ridesharing Laws, Swvl
 
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– as well as any other land transport service company in Egypt that utilizes information technology – is required to obtain a license issued by Egypt’s Land Transport Regulatory Authority (the “Egyptian LTRA”). While companies were required under the Egyptian Ridesharing Laws to obtain such licenses by December 12, 2018, the Egyptian LTRA was not established until June 11, 2019, and, to Swvl’s knowledge, it has not yet issued a license to any ridesharing company, including Swvl. On December 12, 2019, Swvl submitted an application to the Egyptian LTRA, seeking the required license. If and when the Egyptian LTRA approves Swvl’s license application, Swvl will be required to pay a licensing fee, which will include a fee associated with the application process and a fee for Swvl’s
pre-license
operations in Egypt. As a result of Swvl’s current
non-compliance
with the licensing requirements of the Egyptian Ridesharing Laws, the Egyptian LTRA has imposed monetary fines on drivers using Swvl’s platform, which Swvl expects will continue to be imposed until Swvl’s license application is approved. Swvl has reimbursed, and expects to continue to reimburse, drivers for the costs of such fines, which totaled approximately $190 thousand, $440 thousand and $700 thousand during the years ended December 31, 2019, December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
In Jordan, Swvl is operating a pilot
business-to-consumer
program. Although Swvl has been working with relevant authorities to obtain a license in order to run its
business-to-consumer
platform at a larger commercial scale, the Land Transport Regulatory Commission (the “LTRC”) of Jordan is currently not accepting any license applications, and, as a result, we cannot predict if or when the LTRC license will be obtained.
Other than ordinary course business permits generally applicable to companies operating in each particular jurisdiction and regulations pertaining to foreign investment (described in further detail below), Swvl does not believe it is required to obtain any other registrations, licenses, permits or approvals to conduct its business as presently conducted in each of the other jurisdictions in which it operates. Swvl further believes that it possesses all such business permits, the failure of which to possess would be material to Swvl’s operations as presently conducted in the jurisdictions in which it operates. However, as regulation of the ridesharing industry in these jurisdictions remains under development, new laws and regulations may be adopted or implemented that could increase or otherwise change the requirements applicable to Swvl. In addition, regulators may interpret existing laws and regulations that were not intended to apply to ridesharing businesses to apply to Swvl or its operations. Further, Swvl may expand its operations in the jurisdictions in which it operates in ways that would require additional licenses. In particular, if Swvl were to expand its operations in Saudi Arabia or Malaysia to include
business-to-consumer
services, which is under evaluation, Swvl would be required to obtain licenses in such jurisdictions. If Swvl fails to obtain any required registrations, licenses, permits or approvals or is otherwise found to be operating its business in a manner that is not compliant with applicable law, Swvl may be subject to fines, revocation of its licenses and permits or other sanctions or be required to discontinue or restrict Swvl’s operations in such jurisdictions. Any such required registrations, licensees, permits and approvals may be difficult for Swvl to obtain. Swvl cannot predict the effect that the interpretation of existing or new laws or regulations may have on Swvl’s business.
In addition, governments in the jurisdictions Swvl operates or intends to operate may restrict or control to varying degrees the ability of foreign investors to invest in businesses located or operating in such jurisdictions. Because Swvl is incorporated in the British Virgin Islands, Swvl may be deemed to be foreign investors and therefore be subject to such restrictions or controls. As a result, there may be a risk of loss due to, among other things, expropriation, nationalization or confiscation of assets or the imposition of restrictions on repatriation of capital invested, in each case by the governmental or regulatory agencies empowered in such jurisdictions. While, in some cases, the British Virgin Islands has entered into international investment treaties or agreements designed to encourage and protect investment by BVI persons in foreign jurisdictions, there can be no guarantee that such treaties or agreements will cover the jurisdictions in which Swvl operates in or that such treaties or agreements will be fully implemented or effective. In other cases, Swvl is not able to take advantage of certain treaties because it is a British Virgin Islands company and is therefore exposed to additional risk of such loss.
While Swvl is not aware of any material limitations on foreign investment in the jurisdictions in which it operates, Swvl is required to comply with certain regulations related to such investment. In particular, in Jordan,
non-Jordanian
investors are restricted from wholly owning any project or business venture that involves certain trade, construction or services activities. While Swvl does not intend to engage in any such activities in Jordan, the organizational documents of the entity that currently conducts Swvl’s operations in Jordan erroneously includes certain restricted activities as potential objectives of such entity. Such entity is in the process of amending its
 
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organizational documents such that Swvl will be permitted to acquire and hold all of the equity thereof. In addition, in the United Arab Emirates, foreign investors are required to operate via an onshore licensed entity or an onshore branch of a foreign or free zone entity. Swvl has established such an onshore branch and has obtained the requisite licenses and approvals for such branch’s operations. Swvl may become subject to additional limitations and regulations as it expands its operations in the jurisdictions in which it operates and into new jurisdictions, and such limitations and regulations may impair Swvl’s ability to operate effectively in such jurisdictions.
Any of the foregoing or similar occurrences or developments could significantly disrupt Swvl’s business operations and restrict Swvl from conducting a substantial portion of its business operations in these jurisdictions, which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition or operating results.
As Swvl expands its offerings, it may become subject to additional laws and regulations, and any actual or perceived failure by Swvl to comply with such laws and regulations or manage the increased costs associated with such laws and regulations could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results.
As Swvl continues to expand its offerings and user base, it may become subject to additional laws and regulations, which may differ or conflict from one jurisdiction to another. Many of these laws and regulations were adopted prior to the advent of Swvl’s industry and related technologies and, as a result, do not contemplate or address the unique issues faced by Swvl’s industry.
Despite Swvl’s efforts to comply with applicable laws, regulations and other obligations relating to its offerings, it is possible that Swvl’s practices, offerings or platform could be inconsistent with, or fail or be alleged to fail to meet all requirements of, such laws, regulations or obligations. Swvl’s failure to comply with such laws, regulations or obligations may result in Swvl being blocked from or limited in providing or operating its products and offerings in such jurisdictions, or it may be required to modify its business model in those or other jurisdictions as a result. Moreover, Swvl’s failure, or the failure by Swvl’s third-party service providers, to comply with applicable laws or regulations or any other obligations relating to Swvl’s offerings, could harm Swvl’s reputation and brand, discourage new and existing drivers and riders from using Swvl’s platform, lead to refunds of rider fares or result in fines or proceedings by governmental agencies or private claims and litigation, any of which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl is subject to various laws relating to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, and countering the financing of terrorism and has operations in certain countries known to experience high levels of corruption. Swvl has not implemented, or has only recently implemented, certain policies and procedures for the operation of its business and compliance with applicable laws and regulations, including policies with respect to anti-bribery and anti-corruption matters and cyber protection.
Swvl is subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism laws in the jurisdictions in which Swvl does business. Swvl will be subject to such laws in other jurisdictions in the future, including, for example, the FCPA. These laws generally prohibit Swvl, its employees and agents from improperly influencing government officials or commercial parties to, among other things, obtain or retain business, direct business to any person, or gain any improper advantage. Under applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, Swvl could be held liable for acts of corruption and bribery committed by third-party business partners and service providers, representatives, and agents who acted on Swvl’s behalf.
Swvl has operations in, and has business relationships with, entities in countries known to experience high levels of corruption. Swvl and its third-party business partners, representatives, and agents may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. Swvl is subject to the risk that it could be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party business partners and intermediaries and its and their respective employees, representatives, contractors, and agents, even if Swvl does not authorize such activities. Swvl’s employees from time to time consult or engage in discussions with government officials in the jurisdictions where it operates with respect to potential changes in government policies or laws relating to the mass transit ridesharing industry, which may heighten such anti-corruption-related risks.
In addition, Swvl’s activities in certain countries with high levels of corruption enhance the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by business partners and service providers, employees, or consultants
 
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in violation of various anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA, even though the actions of these parties are often outside Swvl’s control. Swvl adopted anti-bribery and anti-corruption policies in September 2020, enhanced its policies in December 2021 and implementation of these policies is ongoing. While these policies are intended to address compliance with such laws, there can be no guarantee that they are or will be fully effective at all times, and Swvl’s employees and agents may take actions in violation of Swvl’s anti-bribery and anti-corruption policies or applicable laws, for which Swvl may be ultimately held responsible. Swvl in the process of reviewing its compliance program to identify areas for enhancements, and Swvl intends to continuously update and improve its compliance program as it expands its operations into new jurisdictions and becomes subject to a larger number of
anti-corruption-related
laws. However, there remains no guarantee that any such expanded compliance program will be fully effective at all times.
Any violation of applicable anti-bribery, anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, and countering the financing of terrorism laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, harm to Swvl’s reputation and brand, investigations, imposition of significant legal fees, severe criminal or civil sanctions and disgorgement of profits, suspension or loss of required licenses and permits, exit from an important market, substantial diversion of management’s attention, a drop in Swvl’s share price, or other adverse consequences, any or all of which could have a material and adverse effect on Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl may be subject to claims, lawsuits, government investigations and other proceedings that adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl has been subject to claims, lawsuits, government investigations and other legal and regulatory proceedings in the ordinary course of business, including those involving labor and employment, commercial disputes and tax matters. Swvl expects to continue to be subject to claims, lawsuits, government investigations and other legal or regulatory proceedings in the ordinary course of business, which may involve any of the foregoing matters as well as licensing and permits, pricing practices, competition, consumer complaints, personal injury, anti-discrimination, intellectual property disputes and other matters, and Swvl may become subject to additional types of claims, lawsuits, government investigations and other legal or regulatory proceedings as Swvl’s business grows and as Swvl deploys new offerings. Moreover, certain liabilities may be imposed by jurisdictions where Swvl operates, including tax liability, which may subject it to regulatory enforcement procedures if it does not or cannot comply.
The results of any such claims, lawsuits, government investigations or other legal or regulatory proceedings cannot be predicted. Any claims against Swvl, whether meritorious or not, could be time-consuming, result in costly litigation, harm Swvl’s reputation, require significant management attention and divert substantial resources. It is possible that a resolution of such proceedings could result in substantial damages, settlement costs, fines and penalties that could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results. These proceedings could also result in harm to Swvl’s reputation and brand, sanctions, injunctions or other orders requiring a change in Swvl’s business practices. Any of these consequences could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results. Furthermore, under certain circumstances, Swvl has contractual and other legal obligations to indemnify and to incur legal expenses on behalf of Swvl’s business and commercial partners.
A determination in, or settlement of, any legal proceeding, whether Swvl is a party to such legal proceeding or not, that involves Swvl’s industry could harm Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results. For example, a determination that classifies a driver of a ridesharing platform as an employee, whether Swvl is a party to such determination or not, could cause Swvl to incur significant expenses or require substantial changes to its business model.
In addition, Swvl regularly includes arbitration provisions in Swvl’s Terms of Service with drivers and riders using Swvl’s platform. These provisions are intended to streamline the dispute resolution process for all parties involved, as arbitration can, in some cases, be faster and less costly than litigating disputes in court. However, arbitration may become more expensive, or the volume of arbitration may increase and become burdensome. The use of arbitration provisions may subject Swvl to certain risks to its reputation and brand, as these provisions have been the subject of increasing public scrutiny in certain jurisdictions.
Further, with the potential for conflicting rules regarding the scope and enforceability of arbitration across the jurisdictions in which Swvl operates and may operate in the future, there is a risk that some or all of Swvl’s
 
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arbitration provisions could be subject to challenge or may need to be revised to exempt certain categories of protection. If Swvl’s arbitration agreements were found to be unenforceable, in whole or in part, or particular claims are required to be exempted from arbitration, Swvl could experience an increase in its costs to litigate disputes and the time involved in resolving such disputes, and Swvl could face increased exposure to potentially costly lawsuits, each of which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Failure to protect or enforce Swvl’s intellectual property rights could harm Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl’s success is dependent in part upon protecting Swvl’s intellectual property rights and technology (such as code, confidential information, data, processes and other forms of information, knowhow and technology). As Swvl grows, it will continue to develop intellectual property that is important for its existing or future business. Swvl relies on a combination of copyright, trademark, service mark, trade secret,
know-how
and confidential information laws and contractual restrictions to establish and protect Swvl’s intellectual property. However, the steps Swvl takes to protect its intellectual property may not be sufficient and may vary by jurisdiction.
Even if Swvl does detect violations, Swvl may need to engage in litigation to enforce its rights. Any enforcement efforts Swvl undertakes, including litigation, could be time-consuming and expensive and could divert the attention of management. While Swvl takes precautions designed to protect its intellectual property, it may still be possible for competitors and other unauthorized third parties to copy Swvl’s technology, reverse engineer its data and use its proprietary information to create or enhance competing solutions and services, which could adversely affect Swvl’s position in the rapidly evolving and increasingly competitive mass-transit ridesharing industry.
Swvl has not registered any of its intellectual property outside of Egypt. Swvl’s failure to register its brand names or logos in jurisdictions in which it operates could allow competitors to register the same or similar names or logos that confuse potential consumers and/or prevent Swvl from subsequently protecting its names and logos. Some license provisions that protect against unauthorized use, copying, transfer and disclosure of Swvl’s technology may be unenforceable under the laws of certain countries. The laws of some countries do not provide the same level of protection of intellectual property as the laws of the United States, and adequate intellectual property protection may not be available or may be limited in such countries. Swvl’s intellectual property protection and enforcement strategy is influenced by many considerations, including costs, where Swvl has business operations, where Swvl might have business operations in the future, legal protections available in a specific jurisdiction and/or other strategic considerations. As such, Swvl does not have identical or analogous intellectual property protection in all jurisdictions, which could limit Swvl’s freedom to operate as it expands into new jurisdictions. As Swvl expands its offerings into new jurisdictions, its exposure to unauthorized use, copying, transfer and disclosure of proprietary information will likely increase. Swvl may need to expend additional resources to protect, enforce or defend its intellectual property, which could harm Swvl’s business, financial condition or operating results. Swvl may also need to expend additional resources to understand and analyze the varying protections available in different jurisdictions and whether formal protection for intellectual property, such as rights in software, is available, commercially advisable and/or enforceable.
Swvl enters into confidentiality and intellectual property assignment agreements with employees and contractors and enters into confidentiality agreements with third-party providers and corporate customers. There can be no assurance that these agreements will effectively control access to, and use and distribution of, Swvl’s platform and proprietary information. Further, these agreements do not prevent Swvl’s competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to Swvl’s offerings. Competitors and other third parties may also attempt to reverse engineer Swvl’s data, which would compromise Swvl’s trade secrets and other rights.
Swvl may be required to spend significant resources monitoring and protecting its intellectual property rights, and some violations may be difficult or nearly impossible to detect. Litigation to defend and enforce Swvl’s intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of Swvl’s intellectual property. Swvl’s efforts to enforce its intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of Swvl’s intellectual property rights. Swvl’s inability to protect its intellectual property and proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of Swvl’s management’s attention and
 
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resources, could impair the functionality of Swvl’s platform, delay introductions of enhancements to Swvl’s platform, result in Swvl substituting inferior or more costly technologies into its platform or harm Swvl’s reputation or brand. In addition, Swvl may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop and market new offerings or platform features, which may not be on commercially reasonable terms and could adversely affect Swvl’s ability to compete.
The ridesharing industry has also been subject to attempts to steal intellectual property. Although Swvl takes measures to protect its property, if it is unable to prevent the theft of its intellectual property or its exploitation, the value of Swvl’s investments may be undermined and Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results may be negatively impacted.
Claims by others that Swvl infringed their proprietary technology or other intellectual property rights could harm Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Companies in the Internet and technology industries are frequently subject to litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, certain companies and rights holders seek to enforce and monetize patents or other intellectual property rights they own or otherwise obtained. As Swvl’s public profile grows and the number of competitors in Swvl’s markets increases, and as Swvl continues to develop new technologies and intellectual property, the possibility of intellectual property rights claims against Swvl may grow. From time to time, third parties may assert claims of infringement of intellectual property rights against Swvl. Swvl does not hold any patents. Competitors of Swvl and others may now and in the future have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than Swvl has. In addition, future litigation may involve patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product or service revenue and against whom Swvl’s own patents (if and when acquired) may therefore provide little or no deterrence or protection. Many potential litigants, including some of Swvl’s competitors and patent-holding companies, have the ability to dedicate substantial resources to assert their intellectual property rights. Any claim of infringement by a third-party, even those without merit, could cause Swvl to incur substantial costs defending against such claim, could distract management’s attention from the operation of Swvl’s business and could require Swvl to cease its use of certain intellectual property. Furthermore, because intellectual property litigation may involve a substantial amount of discovery, Swvl may risk compromising its own confidential information in the course of any such litigation. Swvl may be required to pay substantial damages, royalties or other fees in connection with a claimant securing a judgment against Swvl, Swvl may be subject to an injunction or other restrictions that prevent Swvl from using or distributing its intellectual property, or Swvl may agree to a settlement that prevents it from distributing its offerings or a portion thereof, which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
With respect to any intellectual property rights claim, Swvl may have to seek out a license to continue operations if found to be in violation of such rights, which may not be available on favorable or commercially reasonable terms and may significantly increase Swvl’s operating expenses. Some licenses may be
non-exclusive,
and therefore Swvl’s competitors may have access to the same technology licensed to Swvl. If a third-party does not offer Swvl a license to its intellectual property on reasonable terms, or at all, Swvl may be required to develop alternative,
non-infringing
technology or other intellectual property, which could require significant time (during which Swvl would be unable to continue to offer Swvl’s affected offerings), effort and expense and may ultimately not be successful. Any of these events could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Changes in laws or regulations relating to privacy, data protection or the protection or transfer of personal data, or any actual or perceived failure by Swvl to comply with such laws and regulations or any other obligations relating to privacy, data protection or the protection or transfer of personal data, could adversely affect Swvl’s business.
Swvl receives, transmits and stores a large volume of personally identifiable information and other data relating to the users of Swvl’s platform. Numerous national and international laws, rules and regulations applicable to the jurisdictions in which Swvl operates relate to privacy, data protection and the collection, storing, sharing, use, disclosure and protection of certain types of data. These laws, rules and regulations evolve frequently and their scope may continually change, through new legislation, amendments to existing legislation and changes in enforcement, and may be inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with each other. For
 
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example, changes in laws or regulations relating to privacy, data protection and information security, particularly any new or modified laws or regulations that require enhanced protection of certain types of data or new obligations with regard to data retention, transfer or disclosure, could greatly increase the cost of providing Swvl’s offerings, require significant changes to Swvl’s operations or even prevent Swvl from providing certain offerings in jurisdictions in which it currently operates and in which it may operate in the future. Further, as Swvl continues to expand its platform offerings and user base, Swvl may become subject to additional privacy-related laws and regulations, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/679), which Swvl recently became subject to (please see the section entitled “Item 3D. Risks Related to Regulatory, Legal and Tax Factors Affecting Swvl”). Additionally, Swvl has incurred, and expects to continue to incur, expenses in an effort to comply with privacy, data protection and information security standards and protocols imposed by law, regulation, industry standards or contractual obligations.
Despite Swvl’s efforts to comply with applicable laws, regulations and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection and information security, it is possible that Swvl’s practices, offerings or platform could be inconsistent with, or fail or be alleged to fail to meet all requirements of, such laws, regulations or obligations. Swvl’s failure, or the failure by Swvl’s third-party providers or partners, to comply with applicable laws or regulations or any other obligations relating to privacy, data protection or information security, or any compromise of security that results in unauthorized access to, or use or release of personally identifiable information or other driver or rider data, or the perception that any of the foregoing types of failure or compromise has occurred, could damage Swvl’s reputation, discourage new and existing drivers and riders from using Swvl’s platform or result in fines or proceedings by governmental agencies and private claims and litigation, any of which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results. Even if not subject to legal challenge, the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may harm Swvl’s reputation and brand and adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl may face particular privacy, data security, and data protection risks if it expands into the European Union or United Kingdom in connection with the GDPR and other data protection regulations.
Upon the consummation of Swvl’s acquisition of a controlling interest in Shotl, Swvl began operating in certain European Union (“EU”) member states and the United Kingdom. Expansion into the EU and the United Kingdom or marketing directed to those jurisdictions subjects Swvl and certain personal data it processes to the General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/679) (“GDPR”), supplemented by national laws and further implemented through binding guidance from the European Data Protection Board, which regulates the collection, control, sharing, disclosure, use and other processing of personal data and imposes stringent data protection requirements with significant penalties, and the risk of civil litigation, for noncompliance.
As a result of the Shotl acquisition, Swvl is also subject to the U.K. General Data Protection Regulation (“U.K. GDPR”) (
i.e.
, a version of the GDPR as implemented into U.K. law). Among other requirements, the GDPR regulates transfers of personal data subject to the GDPR to third countries that have not been found to provide adequate protection to such personal data, including the United States. The enactment of the GDPR also introduced numerous privacy-related changes for companies operating in the EU, including greater control for data subjects (including, for example, the “right to be forgotten”), increased data portability for EU consumers, data breach notification requirements, and increased fines. The GDPR requirements likely apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between Swvl and its subsidiaries, including employee information.
As of January 2021 (when the transitional period following Brexit expired), there are two parallel regimes with potentially divergent interpretations and enforcement actions for certain violations. The European Commission adopted an adequacy decision for the U.K., which means that certain aspects of data protection law between the U.K. and EU will remain the same. However, because the U.K.’s Information Commissioner’s Office remains the independent supervisory body regarding the U.K. GDPR but will not be the regulator for any activities under the GDPR, there may be increasing divergence in application, interpretation and enforcement of the data protection law as between the U.K. and the European Economic Area.
As of the date of this Report, Swvl is in the process of bringing all of its operations (legacy and post-Shotl acquisition) into compliance with the GDPR. However, Swvl’s efforts to bring all of its practices (or those of its collaborators, service providers, and contractors) into compliance with the GDPR may not succeed for a variety of
 
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reasons, including due to internal or external factors such as resource allocation limitations or a lack of vendor cooperation. Noncompliance could result in the commencement of legal proceedings against Swvl by governmental and regulatory entities or others. Any inability to adequately address data privacy or security-related concerns, even if unfounded, or to comply with the GDPR or other applicable laws, regulations, standards and other obligations relating to data privacy and security, could result in litigation, breach notification obligations, regulatory or administrative sanctions, additional cost and liability to Swvl, harm to Swvl’s reputation and brand, damage to its relationships with riders, drivers and corporate customers and have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition and operating results. In particular, under the GDPR, fines of up to €20 million or up to 4% of the annual global revenue of the
non-compliant
company, whichever is greater, could be imposed for violations of certain of the GDPR’s requirements. Such penalties are in addition to any civil litigation claims by customers and data subjects.
Swvl’s business would be adversely affected if the drivers using its platform were classified as employees.
The classification status of drivers that operate on ridesharing platforms is the subject of ongoing litigation and debate in multiple countries. Certain global ridesharing businesses are currently involved in legal proceedings in multiple jurisdictions, including putative class and collective action lawsuits, charges and claims before administrative agencies, and investigations or audits by labor, social security, and tax authorities, that claim that drivers using their platforms should be treated as employees (or as workers or quasi-employees where those statuses exist) of such companies, rather than as independent contractors.
Swvl classifies the drivers that use its platform as independent contractors or as employees of third parties in certain of the jurisdictions in which Swvl currently operates. However, in certain of the jurisdictions that Swvl operates, such classifications are based on an interpretation of applicable law, and Swvl’s interpretation may be subject to challenge. In particular, in Egypt, as the Egyptian Ridesharing Laws do not require drivers to be classified as employees, any challenge to Swvl’s determination that drivers are not employees would need to be based on principles of Egyptian labor laws. Under such laws, a person is classified as an employee if he or she works in exchange for a salary for an employer and under the employer’s control and supervision. Thus, in assessing whether drivers should be classified as employees in Egypt, Swvl considers, among other things, the level of direct administration and supervision it has over drivers using its platform.
Similarly, in Pakistan, there is no rigid formula or exhaustive list of criteria for determining whether drivers are employees. Instead, courts in Pakistan have articulated general principles and tests for establishing an employer-employee relationship, including whether the supposed employer has a role in the selection and appointment of, and controls and supervises the work of, the supposed employees. Thus, the proper classification has to be ascertained on a
case-by-case
basis, and courts will take into consideration the facts and circumstances of the engagement. As a result, Swvl itself considers all relevant facts and circumstances, including the level of direct control it exercises over drivers using its platform, in making its determination that such drivers are not employees.
While Swvl believes its classification of drivers as independent contractors in each of the jurisdictions it operates, including in Egypt and Pakistan, is correct, Swvl may in the future be subject to proceedings relating to the classification of drivers using its platform as laws and regulations governing the ridesharing industry, labor and employment develop further (or if interpretations of existing laws and regulations change) and as Swvl expands its business operations in new jurisdictions. Swvl may incur substantial expenses in defending such proceedings. If Swvl is not successful in defending such proceedings, it may be required to pay significant damages to drivers or incur other fines, penalties or sanctions. In addition, if, as a result of legislation or judicial decisions in jurisdictions where the employee-contractor distinction is applicable, Swvl is required to classify drivers as employees in such jurisdictions, Swvl may incur significant additional expenses for compensating drivers or making payments on their behalf, including expenses associated with the application of, as applicable, wage and hour laws (including minimum wage, overtime, and meal and rest period requirements), employee benefits, social security contributions, taxes (direct and indirect), and potential penalties. In such event, Swvl may be required to increase its pricing to offset these additional expenses or to discontinue lower-margin offerings or routes, abandon its efforts to expand into new markets or forego other expenditures, such as marketing or hiring key personnel. As a result, Swvl’s ability to attract new riders and to retain existing riders could be adversely affected and utilization of Swvl’s platform may decrease. Any of the foregoing risks would have an adverse effect on Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
 
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Swvl could be subject to claims from riders, drivers or third parties that are harmed whether or not Swvl’s platform is in use, which could adversely affect Swvl’s brand, business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl may be subject to claims, lawsuits, investigations and other legal proceedings relating to injuries to, or deaths of, riders, drivers or third-parties that may be attributed to Swvl through its offerings. Swvl may also be subject to claims alleging that Swvl is directly or vicariously liable for the acts of the drivers using its platform or for harm related to the actions of drivers, riders, or third parties, or the management and safety of its platform and assets, including in light of the
COVID-19
pandemic and related public health measures issued by various jurisdictions, including travel bans, restrictions, social distancing guidance, and
shelter-in-place
orders. Swvl may also be subject to personal injury claims whether or not such injury actually occurred as a result of activity on its platform. Swvl may incur expenses to settle personal injury claims, which it may choose to settle for reasons including expediency, protection of its reputation and to prevent the uncertainty of litigating, and Swvl expects that such expenses may increase as its business grows and it faces increasing public scrutiny. Regardless of the outcome of any legal proceeding, any injuries to, or deaths of, any riders, drivers or third parties could result in negative publicity and harm to Swvl’s brand, reputation, business, financial condition and operating results. Swvl’s insurance policies and programs may not provide sufficient coverage to adequately mitigate the potential liability Swvl faces, especially where any one incident, or a group of incidents, could cause disproportionate harm, and Swvl may have to pay high premiums or deductibles for its coverage and, for certain situations, Swvl may not be able to secure coverage at all. Any of the foregoing risks could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Swvl is subject to changing laws and regulations regarding regulatory matters, corporate governance and public disclosure that have increased, and are likely to continue to increase, both its costs and the risk of
non-compliance.
Swvl is subject to rules and regulations by various governing bodies, including, for example, the SEC, which are charged with the protection of investors and the oversight of companies whose securities are publicly traded, and to new and evolving regulatory measures under applicable law, including the laws of the BVI and the various countries and cities in which it operates. Swvl’s efforts to comply with new and changing laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which it operates have resulted in and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.
Moreover, because these laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations and changes due to the emerging nature of the markets in which Swvl operates, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance becomes available. This evolution may result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and additional costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to Swvl’s disclosure and governance practices. If Swvl fails to address and comply with these regulations and any subsequent changes, they may be subject to penalty and the business may be harmed.
As a result of plans to expand Swvl’s business operations, including to jurisdictions in which tax laws may not be favorable, Swvl’s obligations may change or fluctuate, become significantly more complex or become subject to greater risk of examination by taxing authorities, any of which could adversely affect Swvl’s
after-tax
profitability and financial results.
Because Swvl has significant expansion plans, Swvl’s effective tax rate may fluctuate or increase in the future. Future effective tax rates could be affected, possibly materially, by changes in tax laws or the regulatory environment, the recognition of operating losses in jurisdictions where no tax benefit can be recorded under the applicable method of accounting, changes in the composition of operating income across tax jurisdictions, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in accounting and tax standards or practices.
Due to the complexity of multinational tax obligations and filings, Swvl may have a heightened risk related to audits or examinations by the relevant taxing authorities. Outcomes from these audits or examinations could have an adverse effect on Swvl’s
after-tax
profitability and financial condition. Additionally, various taxing authorities have increasingly focused attention on intercompany transfer pricing with respect to sales of products and services and the use of intangibles. Taxing authorities could disagree with Swvl’s intercompany charges, cross-jurisdictional transfer pricing or other matters and assess additional taxes. If Swvl does not prevail in any such disagreements, its profitability may be affected.
 
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Swvl’s
after-tax
profitability and financial results may also be adversely affected by changes in the relevant tax laws and tax rates, treaties, regulations, administrative practices and principles, judicial decisions and interpretations thereof, in each case, possibly with retroactive effect.
The Competition Commission of Pakistan (the “CCP”) may challenge the Business Combination or seek financial penalties or behavioral or other remedies, any of which could result in a material adverse effect on Swvl’s business.
SPAC, with the consent of Swvl, initially filed an application with the CCP on January 17, 2022 (the “Application”) for approval to consummate the Business Combination. Approval of the Application by the CCP was a closing condition in the Business Combination Agreement. However, approval of the Application by the CCP was not obtained prior to the vote of the SPAC shareholders. Accordingly, because the SPAC and Swvl did not believe that the Business Combination raised substantive competition considerations in Pakistan, nor did they believe that waiving the related closing condition was likely to result in material adverse consequences, Swvl and SPAC waived this closing condition and, following the satisfaction of all other closing conditions, proceeded with the consummation of the Business Combination.
Swvl continues to believe that the Business Combination does not raise substantive competition considerations in Pakistan, nor does it believe that waiving this closing condition and proceeding with consummation of the Business Combination is likely to result in material adverse consequences. However, there can be no assurance that the CCP will not choose to challenge the Business Combination and/or seek financial penalties or behavioral or other remedies, any of which could result in a material adverse effect on Swvl’s business.
Risks Related to Ownership of Swvl’s Securities
Swvl may not be able to maintain the listing of its securities on Nasdaq.
Swvl Securities are listed on Nasdaq. If Swvl violates Nasdaq listing requirements, Swvl Securities may be delisted. If Swvl fails to meet any of Nasdaq’s listing standards, Swvl Securities may be delisted. In addition, the board of directors of Swvl may determine that the cost of maintaining the listing on a national securities exchange outweighs the benefits of such listing. A delisting of Swvl Securities ordinary shares may materially impair shareholders’ ability to buy and sell our ordinary shares and could have an adverse effect on the market price of, and the efficiency of the trading market for, Swvl Securities. The delisting of Swvl Securities could significantly impair Swvl’s ability to raise capital and the value of your investment.
The market price of Swvl Securities could fluctuate significantly, which could result in substantial losses for purchasers of Swvl Securities.
The market price of Swvl Securities is affected by the supply and demand for such shares, which may be influenced by numerous factors, many of which are beyond Swvl’s control, including:
 
   
fluctuation in actual or projected operating results;
 
   
failure to meet analysts’ earnings expectations;
 
   
the absence of analyst coverage;
 
   
negative analyst recommendations;
 
   
changes in trading volumes in Swvl Securities;
 
   
changes in Swvl’s shareholder structure;
 
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changes in macroeconomic conditions;
 
   
the activities of competitors;
 
   
changes in the market valuations of comparable companies;
 
   
changes in investor and analyst perception with respect to Swvl’s business or the mass-transit ridesharing industry in general; and
 
   
changes in the statutory framework applicable to Swvl’s business.
As a result, the market price of Swvl Securities may be subject to substantial fluctuation.
In addition, general market conditions and fluctuation of share prices and trading volumes could lead to pressure on the market price of Swvl Securities, even if there may not be a reason for this based on Swvl’s business performance or earnings outlook. Furthermore, investors in the secondary market may view Swvl’s business more critically than prior or current investors, which could adversely affect the market price of Swvl Securities in the secondary market.
If the market price of Swvl Securities declines as a result of the realization of any of these or other risks, investors could lose part or all of their investment in Swvl Securities.
Additionally, in the past, when the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have sometimes instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the shares. If any of Swvl’s shareholders brought a lawsuit against Swvl, Swvl could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit. Such a lawsuit could also divert the time and attention of management from the business, which could significantly harm Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
Future resales of Swvl’s shares may cause the market price of Swvl’s shares to drop significantly, even if Swvl’s business is doing well.
Sales of a substantial number of Swvl securities, including our Ordinary Shares, in the public market could occur at any time. Sales of a substantial number of Swvl securities in the public market or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our securities and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Sales of a substantial number of our securities upon any future waivers or expiration of
lock-up
agreements entered into by our shareholders, or the perception that such sales may occur, could have a material and adverse effect on the trading price of our securities. For example, certain
lock-up
restrictions entered into in connection with the Business Combination will expire in the six to twelve months following closing of the Business Combination. As such, sales of a substantial number of our securities in the public market could occur at any time following the
lock-up
expirations. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could cause the market price of our securities to decline or increase the volatility in the market price of our securities.
Further, we have agreed to file with the SEC a registration statement covering the resale of certain Ordinary Shares issued in connection with the Business Combination, including shares issued pursuant to the private offering of Swvl Securities (the “PIPE Financing”) to certain investors (the “PIPE Investors”). We have also agreed to file a registration statement covering the resale of shares that may be issued to B. Riley pursuant to our equity line financing. Any of these resales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to resell shares, could cause the market price of our securities to decline or increase the volatility in the market price of our securities.
Investor perceptions of risks in developing countries could reduce investor appetite for investments in these countries or for the securities of issuers operating in these countries.
Investing in securities of issuers operating in developing countries generally involves a higher degree of risk than investing in securities of issuers from more developed countries. Economic crises in one or more such
 
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countries may reduce overall investor appetite for securities of issuers operating in developing countries generally, even for such issuers that operate outside the regions directly affected by the crises. Past economic crises in developing countries, including in Egypt, have often resulted in significant outflows of international capital and caused issuers operating in developing countries to face higher costs for raising funds, and in some cases have effectively impeded access to international capital markets for extended periods.
Thus, even if the economies of the countries in which Swvl operates remain relatively stable, financial turmoil in any developing market country could have an adverse effect on Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about Swvl’s business, the market price for Swvl Securities and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for Swvl Securities depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about Swvl or its business. If securities or industry analyst coverage results in downgrades of Swvl Securities or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about Swvl’s business, the share price of Swvl Securities would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of Swvl or fail to publish reports on Swvl regularly, Swvl could lose visibility in the financial markets and demand for Swvl Securities could decrease, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for Swvl Securities to decline significantly.
In addition, organizations that provide information to investors on corporate governance and related matters have developed ratings processes for evaluating companies on their approach to ESG matters. Such ratings are used by some investors to inform their investment and voting decisions. Inaccurate or unfavorable ESG ratings could lead to negative investor sentiment towards Swvl, which could have a negative impact on the market price and demand for Swvl Securities, as well as Swvl’s access to and cost of capital.
There is no guarantee that the Warrants will be in the money at the time they become exercisable, and they may expire worthless.
The exercise price for our Warrants is $11.50 per Ordinary Share. There is no guarantee that the Warrants will be in the money following the time they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, and as such, the Warrants may expire worthless.
We may amend the terms of the Warrants in a manner that may be adverse to holders with the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Warrants. As a result, the exercise price of your Warrants could be increased, the exercise period could be shortened and the number of Ordinary Shares purchasable upon exercise of a Warrant could be decreased, all without your approval.
We may redeem unexpired Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to warrant holders, thereby making their warrants worthless.
We have the ability to redeem outstanding Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per Warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of the Ordinary Shares equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a
30-trading
day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which we give proper notice of such redemption and provided certain other conditions are met. If and when the Warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding Warrants could force you to (a) exercise your Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (b) sell your Warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your Warrants, or (c) accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your Warrants.
In addition, we have the ability to redeem the outstanding Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.10 per Warrant upon a minimum of 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption provided that the last reported sales price per Ordinary Share equals or exceeds $10.00 per
 
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share (as adjusted for share subdivisions, share dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) on the trading day prior to the date on which we send the notice of redemption, and provided that certain other conditions are met, including that holders will be able to exercise their Warrants prior to redemption for a number of Ordinary Shares determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of our Ordinary Shares. The value received upon exercise of the Warrants (i) may be less than the value the holders would have received if they had exercised their Warrants at a later time where the underlying share price is higher and (ii) may not compensate the holders for the value of the Warrants, including because the number of Ordinary Shares received is capped at 0.361 Ordinary Shares per Warrant (subject to adjustment) irrespective of the remaining life of the Warrants. Any such redemption may have similar consequences to a cash redemption described above. In addition, such redemption may occur at a time when the warrants are
“out-of-the-money,”
in which case you would lose any potential embedded value from a subsequent increase in the value of the Ordinary Shares had your warrants remained outstanding.
Swvl may be a “passive foreign investment company,” or “PFIC”, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders.
If Swvl is a PFIC for any taxable year (or portion thereof) in which a U.S. Holder (as defined below in the section of this Report entitled “Item 10.E. Taxation”), holds Ordinary Shares, such U.S. Holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences and certain information reporting requirements. U.S. Holders are strongly encouraged to consult with their own tax advisors to determine the application of the PFIC rules to them in their particular circumstances and any resulting tax consequences. Please see the section of this Report entitled “Item 10.E. Taxation” for a more detailed discussion with respect to the PFIC status of Swvl and the resulting tax consequences to U.S. Holders.
Swvl will incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and its management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.
As a public company, Swvl incurs significant legal, accounting and other expenses that it did not incur as a private company. For example, Swvl is subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and is required to comply with the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules and regulations of the SEC and Nasdaq.
Swvl expects that compliance with these requirements will increase its legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. In addition, Swvl’s management and other personnel may be required to divert their attention from operational and other business matters to devote substantial time to these public company requirements. In particular, Swvl is incurring significant expenses and devoting substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which will increase further when Swvl is no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”) (Please see the section entitled “Swvl is an “emerging growth company”, and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make Swvl Securities less attractive to investors”). As a public company, Swvl has been hiring and is continuing to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge and may need to establish an internal audit function.
Swvl’s management team has limited experience managing a public company, which may result in difficulty adequately operating and growing Swvl’s business.
Swvl’s management team has limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Swvl’s management team may not successfully or efficiently manage their new roles and responsibilities or the transition to being a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under U.S. federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from Swvl’s senior management and could divert their attention from the
day-to-day
management of Swvl’s business, which could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.
 
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If Swvl fails to establish and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting, its ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired, investors may lose confidence in its financial reporting and the trading price of its shares may decline.
Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, subject to accommodations available to newly public companies and emerging growth companies, a report by management on internal control over financial reporting and an attestation of our independent registered public accounting firm is required. As a newly public company, Swvl has not previously been required to conduct an internal control evaluation and assessment. The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation. To comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the requirements of being a reporting company under the Exchange Act and any complex accounting rules in the future, Swvl is in the process of upgrading its information technology systems, implementing additional financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures, and hiring additional accounting and finance staff. If Swvl is unable to hire the additional accounting and finance staff necessary to comply with these requirements, it may need to retain additional outside consultants. Swvl may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements. If Swvl is not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, including if Swvl is unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls, Swvl may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If Swvl cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, Swvl’s business and results of operations could be harmed, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information and Swvl could be subject to sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.
In addition, Swvl has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting and there can be no assurances that there will not be material weaknesses in Swvl’s internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit Swvl’s ability to accurately report its financial condition, operating results or cash flows. If Swvl is unable to comply with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or conclude that its internal control over financial reporting is effective, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of its financial reports, the market price of its securities could decline, and Swvl could be subject to sanctions or investigations by Nasdaq, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in Swvl’s internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict Swvl’s future access to the capital markets. In addition, failure to implement adequate internal controls or ensure that books and records accurately reflect transactions could result in criminal and civil fines and penalties under the FCPA, as well as related reputational harm and legal fees in defense of such investigations. Any of the foregoing risks could have an adverse effect on Swvl’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
Swvl is an “emerging growth company”, and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make Swvl Securities less attractive to investors.
Swvl is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. As a result, Swvl is taking advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including, the ability to furnish two rather than three years of income statements and statements of cash flows in various required filings and not being required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by Swvl’s independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, Swvl’s shareholders may not have access to certain information that they deem important. Swvl could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, although Swvl could lose that status sooner if its gross revenue exceeds $1.07 billion, if it issues more than $1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt in a three-year period, or if the fair value of its shares held by
non-affiliates
exceeds $700.0 million (and Swvl has been a public company for at least 12 months and has filed one annual report on Form
20-F).
Swvl cannot predict if investors will find Swvl Securities less attractive if it relies on these exemptions. If some investors find Swvl Securities less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for the Swvl Securities and its share price may be more volatile.
 
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As a foreign private issuer, Swvl is not subject to U.S. proxy rules and is subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.
Swvl reports under the Exchange Act as a
non-U.S.
company with foreign private issuer status. Because Swvl qualifies as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, Swvl is exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including (1) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act, (2) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time and (3) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form
10-Q
containing unaudited financial and other specified information. In addition, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form
20-F
until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form
10-K
within 75 days after the end of each fiscal year and U.S. domestic issuers that are large accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form
10-K
within 60 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from Regulation FD, which is intended to prevent issuers from making selective disclosures of material information. As a result of all of the above, holders of Swvl Securities may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of a company that is not a foreign private issuer.
As a company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands, Swvl is permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if Swvl complied fully with Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards.
Swvl is subject to Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards. However, Nasdaq rules permit a foreign private issuer such as Swvl to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the British Virgin Islands, which is Swvl’s home country, may differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards. For instance, Swvl may choose to follow home country practice in lieu of Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards such as:
 
   
have a majority of the board be independent (although all of the members of the audit committee must be independent under the Exchange Act);
 
   
have a compensation committee or a nominating or corporate governance committee consisting entirely of independent directors;
 
   
have regularly scheduled executive sessions for
non-management
directors;
 
   
have annual meetings and director elections; and
 
   
obtain shareholder approval prior to certain issuances (or potential issuances) of securities.
Swvl follows home country practice and is exempt from requirements to obtain shareholder approval for the issuance of 20% or more of its outstanding shares under Nasdaq Listing Rule 5635(d). If, in the future, Swvl chooses to follow other home country practices in lieu of Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards (such as the ones listed above), Swvl’s shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would have under corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. For more information about Swvl’s corporate governance practices, please see the subsection of this Report entitled “Item 16.G. Board Practices—Foreign Private Issuer Status.”
As the rights of shareholders under BVI law differ from those under U.S. law, you may have fewer protections as a shareholder.
Swvl’s corporate affairs are governed by its amended and restated memorandum and articles of association (the “Swvl Public Company Articles”), the BVI Companies Act and the common law of the BVI. The rights of shareholders to take legal action against Swvl’s directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary
 
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responsibilities of directors under BVI law are governed by the BVI Companies Act and the common law of the BVI. The common law of the BVI is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the BVI as well as from the common law of England, which has persuasive, but not binding, authority on a court in the BVI. The rights of Swvl’s shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of Swvl’s directors under BVI law are largely codified in the BVI Companies Act but are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedents in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the BVI has a less exhaustive body of securities laws as compared to the United States, and some states (such as Delaware) have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law. There is no statutory recognition in the BVI of judgments obtained in the U.S., although the courts of the BVI will in certain circumstances recognize and enforce a
non-penal
judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits. As a result of all of the above, holders of Swvl Securities may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by Swvl’s management, members of the board of directors or major shareholders than they would as shareholders of a U.S. company.
The Swvl Public Company Articles and the Swvl Shareholders Agreement contain certain provisions, including anti-takeover provisions, that limit the ability of shareholders to take certain actions and could delay or discourage takeover attempts that shareholders may consider favorable.
The Swvl Public Company Articles and the shareholders agreement by and among Swvl and certain of its shareholders (the “Swvl Shareholders Agreement”) contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying, or preventing an acquisition that shareholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which shareholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. These provisions could also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for Swvl Securities, and therefore depress the trading price. These provisions could also make it difficult for shareholders to take certain actions, including electing directors who are not nominated by the incumbent members of the Swvl Board or taking other corporate actions, including effecting changes in Swvl’s management, and may inhibit the ability of an acquiror to effect an unsolicited takeover attempt. Such provisions include, among other things:
 
   
a classified board of directors with staggered, three-year terms;
 
   
the ability of the Swvl Board to issue preferred shares and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without shareholder approval;
 
   
the right of Mostafa Kandil to serve as Chair of the Swvl Board so long as he remains Chief Executive Officer of Swvl and to serve as a director so long as he beneficially owns at least 1% of the outstanding shares of Swvl and his employment has not been terminated for cause;
 
   
until the completion of Swvl’s third annual meeting of shareholders, commitments by major shareholders to vote in favor of the appointment of Swvl designees to the Swvl Board at any shareholder meeting (and, thereafter, to vote in favor of the appointment of Mostafa Kandil or his designee to the Swvl Board, subject to specified conditions);
 
   
the limitation of liability of, and the indemnification of and advancement of expenses to, members of the Swvl Board;
 
   
advance notice procedures with which shareholders must comply to nominate candidates to the Swvl Board or to propose matters to be acted upon at a shareholders’ meeting, which could preclude shareholders from bringing matters before annual or special meetings and delay changes in the Swvl Board and also may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise from attempting to obtain control of Swvl;
 
   
that directors may be removed only for cause and only upon the vote of
two-thirds
of the directors then in office;
 
   
that shareholders may not act by written consent in lieu of a meeting;
 
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the right of the Swvl Board to fill vacancies created by the expansion of the Swvl Board or the resignation, death or removal of a director; and
 
   
that the Memorandum and Articles of Association may be amended only by the Swvl Board of Directors or by the affirmative vote of holders of a majority of not less than 75% of the votes of the shares of Swvl entitled to vote.
Shareholders may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing original actions in the jurisdictions in which Swvl operates based on U.S. or other foreign laws against Swvl, its management or the experts named in this registration statement.
Swvl is a British Virgin Islands company and substantially all of its assets and operations are located outside of the U.S. In addition, most of Swvl’ directors and officers reside outside the U.S. and the substantial majority of their assets are located outside of the U.S. As a result, it may be difficult to effect service of process within the U.S. or elsewhere upon these persons. It may also be difficult to enforce judgments in the jurisdictions in which Swvl operates or British Virgin Islands courts against Swvl and its officers and directors. It may be difficult or impossible to bring an action against Swvl in the British Virgin Islands if you believe your rights under the U.S. securities laws have been infringed. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the British Virgin Islands or jurisdictions in which Swvl operates would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts against Swvl or such persons predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the U.S. or any state and it is uncertain whether such British Virgin Islands courts or courts in jurisdictions in which Swvl operates would hear original actions brought in the British Virgin Islands or jurisdictions in which Swvl operates against Swvl or such persons predicated upon the securities laws of the U.S. or any state.
Mail sent to Swvl may be delayed.
Mail addressed to Swvl and received at its registered office is forwarded unopened to the forwarding address supplied by Swvl. None of Swvl, its directors, officers, advisors or service providers (including the organization which provides registered office services in the BVI) bears any responsibility for any delay howsoever caused in mail reaching the forwarding address. As a result, shareholder communications sent by mail to Swvl may be delayed.
It may be difficult to enforce judgments obtained in the U.S. in BVI.
There is no statutory enforcement in the British Virgin Islands of judgments obtained in the U.S., however, the courts of the British Virgin Islands will in certain circumstances recognize such a foreign judgment and treat it as a cause of action in itself which may be sued upon as a debt at common law so that no retrial of the issues would be necessary, provided that:
 
   
the U.S. court issuing the judgment had jurisdiction in the matter and the company either submitted to such jurisdiction or was resident or carrying on business within such jurisdiction and was duly served with process;
 
   
the judgment is final and for a liquidated sum;
 
   
the judgment given by the U.S. court was not in respect of penalties, taxes, fines or similar fiscal or revenue obligations of the company;
 
   
in obtaining judgment there was no fraud on the part of the person in whose favor judgment was given or on the part of the court;
 
   
recognition or enforcement of the judgment in the British Virgin Islands would not be contrary to public policy; and
 
   
the proceedings pursuant to which judgment was obtained were not contrary to natural justice.
 
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The British Virgin Islands courts are unlikely:
 
   
to recognize or enforce against Swvl, judgments of courts of the U.S. predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the U.S.; and
 
   
to impose liabilities against Swvl, predicated upon the certain civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the U.S. so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature.
 
ITEM 4.
INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
A.    History and Development of the Company
General Corporate Information
Swvl Holdings Corp is a British Virgins Islands business company incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands. Swvl was incorporated on July 23, 2021 for the purpose of effecting the Business Combination and on March 31, 2022, the Business Combination was consummated and Swvl completed its listing on Nasdaq. See “Explanatory Note” for further details regarding the Business Combination. Since April 1, 2022, Swvl Ordinary Shares and Warrants have traded on the Nasdaq under the symbols “SWVL” and “SWVLW,” respectively.
The mailing address of Swvl’s registered office is Kingston Chambers, P.O. Box 173, Road Town, Tortola, the British Virgin Islands. Swvl’s principal executive office is located at Offices 4 at One Central, Dubai World Trade Center, Dubai, United Arab Emirates and its telephone number is +971 42241293. Swvl’s principal website address is
https://www.swvl.com
. We do not incorporate the information contained on, or accessible through, the Company’s websites into this Report, and you should not consider it as a part of this Report. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The SEC’s website is
www.sec.gov
.
Capital Expenditures
Our capital expenditures amounted to approximately $0.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, approximately $0.2 million in FY 2020 and approximately $0.4 million in FY 2019. Our historical capital expenditures are primarily related to additions and purchases of property and equipment, which included the purchase of fixtures and furniture, leasehold improvements and employee laptops. While we are an asset-light business, we expect to moderately increase our capital expenditures to meet the expected growth in scale of our business and as we expand geographically and bolster our existing offerings. We expect that cash received in connection with the Business Combination and cash from operating activities and financing activities will be used to meet our capital expenditure and marketing spend needs in the foreseeable future.
Recent Developments
On August 19, 2021, we announced a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in Shotl Transportation, S.L., a mass transit platform that partners with municipalities and corporations to provide
on-demand
bus and van services across Europe, South America and the Asia-Pacific region. The Shotl acquisition expanded Swvl’s footprint into 22 additional cities in 10 countries across Europe, South America and the Asia-Pacific region, including Spain, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Brazil and Japan, rapidly accelerating Swvl’s expansion timeline. The transaction closed on November 19, 2021.
On November 16, 2021, we announced a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in Viapool Inc., a mass transit platform currently operating in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Santiago, Chile. The Viapool transaction is expected to create a strong foothold for Swvl in Latin America, a key geography for our expansion plan and an attractive entry point ahead of planned wider expansions in Brazil and Mexico. The transaction closed on January 14, 2022.
 
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On March 24, 2022, we announced a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in Door2DoorGmbH, a high-growth mobility operations platform that partners with municipalities, public transit operators, corporations, and automotive companies to optimize shared mobility solutions across Europe. The closing of the door2door transaction is subject to customary closing conditions and is expected to be completed in Q2 2022.
B.    Business Overview
Overview
We are a technology-driven disruptive mobility company that aims to provide reliable, safe, cost-effective and environmentally responsible mass transit solutions. Our mission is to identify and solve inefficiencies associated with
low-quality
or sometimes
non-existent
public transportation infrastructure in urban areas that are in critical need of such services. Our technology and services provide commuters, travelers and businesses with a valuable alternative to traditional public transportation, taxi companies or other ridesharing companies. Through our Swvl platform, we provide thousands of riders per day with a dynamically-routed self-optimizing network of minibuses and other vehicles, helping people get where they need to go.
Our core product is our B2C Swvl Retail offering, which provides riders with a network of minibuses and other vehicles running on fixed or semi-fixed routes within cities. Commuters use our Swvl mobile application to book rides between
pre-defined
pick-up
points located throughout the city. Our service is powered by a suite of proprietary technologies that regularly optimize routing, predict rider demand, set pricing and provide a seamless user experience for customers and drivers. We believe that our platform offers a transportation alternative that is more efficient, reliable and safe than traditional public transportation options, at an accessible price point. This has allowed us to grow our business rapidly. As of December 31, 2021, more than 2.1 million users have booked more than 73.3 million rides on Swvl.
With our Swvl Travel offering, riders can book rides on long-distance intercity routes on either vehicles available exclusively through the Swvl platform or through third-party services marketed through Swvl.
Leveraging the technology that we use for our Retail and Travel offerings, we also offer “transport as a service” (“TaaS”) enterprise products (marketed as Swvl Business) for businesses, schools, municipal transit agencies and other customers that operate their own transportation programs. These products include, among other things, access to our Swvl Business platform, use of our proprietary technologies, consulting and reporting services and use of the vehicles and drivers on our network to operate such transportation programs. We package our TaaS products to meet the specific needs of each customer. As of December 31, 2021, more than 250 companies across diverse industries, including technology, finance, food and beverage, consulting and healthcare, use our TaaS products. We also announced plans to expand our Swvl Business offering by introducing “software as a service” (“SaaS”) products in 2022, which will allow customers with their own vehicle fleets to utilize the benefits of our platform and technologies.
Our business was founded on February 8, 2017 by Mostafa Kandil, our Chief Executive Officer, Mahmoud Nouh and Ahmed Sabbah. We launched our first commuter services in Cairo, Egypt in March 2017, before expanding to Alexandria, Egypt the same year. As of December 31, 2021, we have expanded our operations to multiple cities across seven countries, with our core Retail offering available in select cities in Egypt, Kenya, Pakistan and Jordan. In January 2019, we commenced operations in Nairobi, Kenya. Namely, in the second half of 2019, we commenced operations in major cities in Pakistan, including Lahore, Islamabad and Karachi, and relocated our headquarters from Cairo, Egypt to Dubai, United Arab Emirates. In 2020 and 2021, we also launched TaaS offerings in the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Malaysia.
Market Opportunity and Competitive Advantage
We believe that traditional modes of public transportation represent a rigid and outdated approach to the needs of the modern world. Particularly in developing countries, existing mass-transit infrastructure often suffers from a combination of being inaccessible, unreliable and unsafe. Urban populations in such countries are often unserved or underserved by public transportation networks. Where access to public transportation is available, many commuters must endure long wait times and inconsistent or delayed service. In turn, commuters and society at large
 
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waste hours waiting for transportation. In addition, mass-transit networks often fail to provide a safe travel environment – particularly for women. Overcrowding on vehicles can expose riders to a greater risk of sexual harassment, assault or theft. In fact, the Asian Development Bank’s 2015 report,
Policy Brief: A Safe Public Transportation Environment for Women and Girls,
found that 78% of women surveyed in Karachi reported being harassed on public transport at least once over the preceding year.
Alternatives to public transportation are also inaccessible for many commuters. In the markets we serve, such as Egypt and Pakistan, taxi companies and other ridesharing companies generally cater to wealthier customers. While more convenient and safer than public transportation, high prices (even with discounts and promotions) may put these services out of reach for many commuters.
Swvl’s B2C retail strategy is to create new options for mass-transit by occupying the space between traditional public transportation and expensive private options to attract ridership to our platform:
 
   
Reliability
: In some of our markets, it is common for public buses to wait at stops until buses are full, resulting in unpredictable scheduling and long delays. Because our vehicles operate through a booking system, drivers know exactly how many passengers will board at a given
pre-defined
pick-up
point and do not wait to collect additional riders. We also gather and analyze large amounts of traffic data in the cities we serve to predict travel conditions, which allows riders to receive estimated pickup and arrival times, as well as track their vehicle in real time. In 2021, we maintained an average monthly first station reliability rate of approximately 91%, meaning that drivers using our platform arrived
on-time
(i.e., within five minutes of the estimated time) at the first
pick-up
point of their daily routes approximately 91% of the time.
 
   
Convenience
: Optimized route planning and scheduling allow us to create and update routes that react to and satisfy rider demand, in contrast to public transportation that operates solely on fixed routes. This means we can ensure that our riders have convenient access to
pick-up
points. Our Swvl application allows riders to make bookings up to five days in advance, and we offer payment by cash, credit card or digital wallet.
 
   
Safety
: Safety is an essential part of our value proposition. We recognize that consumers in the markets we serve often feel unsafe on public transportation. We have built our user experience around functionalities designed to increase safety. Our
one-passenger-per-seat
booking system avoids overcrowding on our vehicles, reducing the likelihood of harassment, assault and theft during rides. Unlike public transportation, the fact that each rider has a unique user account facilitates identification of riders acting improperly, thereby increasing accountability and incentivizing good conduct. Through our Swvl application, riders can share their live ride status with others. We also partner with insurance companies to provide
in-ride
medical insurance to all riders and drivers using our platform in Egypt and maintain dedicated teams to respond to critical incidents. Our driver engagement procedures are also designed to ensure the safety of our riders, including by requiring drivers using our platform in Egypt and Jordan to submit recent criminal record checks and drug tests as part of their engagement process. In order to help ensure the health and safety of drivers and riders using our platform during the
COVID-19
pandemic, we ran
SMS-based
campaigns to educate drivers using our platform on heightened safety measures.
 
   
Comfort
: We also differentiate our customer experience on the basis of comfort. Riders are guaranteed a seat, which eliminates crowding and the need to stand during rides. All vehicles must meet specific criteria relating to age, distance traveled, maintenance history and overall condition before being allowed to operate on our platform.
 
   
Value
: Our services are priced to be accessible to a large rider base and cheaper than taxis or other ridesharing companies in the markets we serve.
Our main source of competition is public transportation. We strive to harness the competitive advantages of our offerings described above to convert users of public transportation into users of our platform. We also compete against taxi companies and traditional ridesharing platforms, such as Uber. By offering comfortable, reliable and safe rides at an accessible price point, our offerings aim to attract users of single-rider services by offering a lower-cost alternative that offers a better rider experience than public transportation.
 
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In the markets we serve, the mass-transit ridesharing industry is a relatively new phenomenon, and as a result there are a small but growing number of businesses that offer services equivalent to ours. Examples of such businesses include Via, Flixbus and Shuttl. We believe that the technology powering our offerings (please see the section entitled “Our Technology” below), as well as our early entry into the mass-transit ridesharing space (and the network effects that such early entry enables), have allowed and will allow us to scale our business efficiently, in turn enabling us to create and maintain a strong competitive position in the markets in which we operate.
In addition to our B2C business, we have expanded our market opportunity by targeting corporate clients through our Swvl Business (TaaS) offerings. We believe Swvl Business products offer a comprehensive solution to the inefficiencies that commonly affect businesses (as well as schools and municipalities) operating commute and travel programs for their employees (and students). Many companies rely on large vehicle fleets to compensate for unoptimized and rigid routing. Poor fleet utilization – such as using large buses to accommodate a relatively small number of passengers – drives up
per-rider
costs. Traditional dispatching infrastructure and the associated administrative burdens, including manual data collection, invoice reconciliation and inconsistencies in records, contribute to costly and time-consuming process management. With our TaaS and SaaS offerings, we compete with other ridesharing companies, such as Via.
We also believe the diversity of our offerings is a key competitive advantage. Whereas other companies in the ridesharing industry focus on one or two product categories (such as intracity and intercity B2C offerings), our offerings include intracity (i.e., Retail) and intercity (i.e., Travel) B2C offerings as well as B2B offerings, which provide our business with multiple avenues for growth.
Offerings
We currently serve the customers on our platform through two offerings: “business to consumer”, comprised of Swvl Retail and Swvl Travel, and “business to business”, which includes our TaaS model.
Swvl Retail
Our core product is our Swvl Retail offering. Using our platform, we provide riders with a network of minibuses and other vehicles that operate on fixed and semi-fixed routes throughout the cities we serve. Riders book seats on vehicles available exclusively through Swvl to commute within a city. Riders can book journeys up to five days in advance and pay a fixed rate, determined based on ride distance and anticipated demand, with the option to pay in cash or by credit card or digital wallet. Riders manage their user experience via the Swvl mobile application, through which riders can access and book available trips, track vehicles in real-time, receive an estimated
pick-up
time, manage payments and access customer support services.
Swvl Travel
With Swvl Travel, riders book and take intercity, long-distance trips on either vehicles available exclusively through the Swvl platform or with third-party services marketed through Swvl in exchange for a commission. We also opened and manage a physical Swvl Travel shop in Hurghada, Egypt, which allows riders to book intercity trips in person in a convenient location for frequent travelers.
Swvl Business (TaaS and SaaS)
In addition to our B2C offerings, we have worked to develop ways of diversifying our revenues and identifying potentially higher-margin offerings. The result is our B2B TaaS and SaaS products, marketed together as Swvl Business.
Swvl Business enables our corporate customers (as well as schools and municipalities) to use Swvl’s technology and platform to optimize the commute and travel programs they operate for their employees (and students). Since Swvl Business uses technology already developed for our B2C offerings, its development and
 
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deployment does not (and did not) impose significant additional R&D costs on our business. Our TaaS offerings are targeted at companies that do not operate their own vehicle fleets. With TaaS, we offer dedicated routes (for use exclusively by the organization’s employees and students) using vehicles and drivers already operating on Swvl to transport employees and students to and from their places of work and study. Unlike our B2C offerings, pricing, routing and vehicle allocation are fixed in our agreements with each customer, and only drivers that meet the criteria set forth in these agreements are dispatched to operate on the applicable TaaS routes. Our customers typically pay for our TaaS offerings on a per route basis, with pricing determined based on the length and location of such route and without regard to the number of riders on such route.
We intend to expand our Swvl Business offerings with SaaS in 2022. Our SaaS offerings will be targeted at corporate customers (as well as schools and municipalities) that operate their own vehicle fleets, with specific services tailored to the needs of each customer. Our basic offerings will include access to our dedicated Swvl Business application, which centralizes passenger management, billing, scheduling, data analytics and support functions in one platform. At higher service tiers, we will provide the use of our network optimization and Dynamic Routing technologies as described below, as well as access to our fleet management modules, which will enable our customers to more easily manage their drivers and track their rides. We also plan to offer consulting and reporting services. We intend to use a tiered cost-plus pricing model for our SaaS products.
As our B2B customers do not pay for TaaS and SaaS services on a per rider or per utilized seat basis, Swvl does not assume any utilization risk on such offerings. As a result, we anticipate that TaaS and SaaS have the potential to be higher-margin offerings, which would allow us to enhance our margins.
Our Technology
Our technology is a critical component of our business proposition. Our ability to provide a seamless experience for our riders and drivers, to effectively predict rider demand, to create efficient, high-Utilization route plans and to price our offerings accordingly depends on ongoing innovation and the effectiveness of our data analysis, modeling and algorithms.
Our technology and business model also depend in part on our relationships with third party product and service providers. For example, we rely on third parties to fulfill various marketing, web hosting, payment, communications and data analytics services to support our platform. We also incorporate third party software into our platform. When selecting third party technology providers, we focus on affordability, reliability, efficiency, optimization and cohesion with our platform, and believe our existing relationships with such providers are critical to our ability to execute our business strategy.
Access to Our Platform
Drivers and riders that utilize our platform do so through our mobile application. Riders use our application to access available trips, select
pick-up
and
drop-off
locations, schedule trips in advance and to pay.
In addition, riders can use our application to track their vehicle in real time or quickly view the walking route and time to their scheduled
pick-up
point. Drivers use our mobile application to access upcoming and past trips, check riders in and out of their vehicle and access training modules and support.
Demand Identification and Prediction
We use our proprietary network optimization model to create, optimize and effectively price the routes we offer. This model employs machine learning algorithms to predict and identify latent and existing demand within cities. Our algorithms segment cities into
equally-sized
areas that serve as the basic unit of analysis we use to build our network. We run regression analyses to identify major demand pairings between segments, and use
in-app
search data and other tools, such as mobile data and social media, to understand the potential magnitude of riders’ movement between these segments. This process allows us to determine where to run new routes, where to reactivate discontinued routes and where to add or remove capacity.
 
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Route Creation and Optimization
Based on this demand identification and prediction analysis, our proprietary, machine learning and regularly adapting model defines optimal routes to maximize conversion of demand into ridership, minimize overlap between routes, minimize walking distance to our
pick-up
points and define the right time to deploy vehicles. An algorithm then automatically sets vehicle routes and
pick-up
points in a manner designed to maximize vehicle Utilization and earnings and to pair drivers with routes that are convenient to their location in the city. Our monthly Utilization rate, measured as the Total Bookings in a given month divided by Total Available Seats in such month, was approximately 81% in December 2021, up from approximately 78% in January 2021.
In an attempt to ensure maximum vehicle Utilization and driver convenience and to minimize
per-kilometer
costs, we also use machine learning algorithms to “stitch” multiple routes into a single daily plan for each vehicle. Each plan consists of two to six separate routes, allocated to vehicles to minimize travel time between the end of one route and the beginning of another. The routes that comprise a single plan may consist of Swvl Retail, Swvl Travel or Swvl Business (TaaS) routes. By sequencing routes this way, we are able to increase the time drivers spend on routes (as opposed to moving between routes) and thereby increase the revenue vehicles using our platform can produce each day. The plan-creation algorithm is also designed to ensure that the end point of each plan is proximate to the starting point, which helps to minimize the time vehicles spend unutilized as drivers return home and to keep drivers using our platform. We believe that this planning function has helped to maintain strong rates of driver retention.
Once plans are created, their allocation is determined at the beginning of each week using a smart assignment system. Using our platform, drivers (or the third party vehicle operators that employ them) bid on their desired route plan based on their pricing, scheduling and location preferences. A recommendation engine matches the plans with each driver or vehicle operator based on these preferences and expected overall cost (including the bid price). High-performing drivers and vehicle operators also receive preference for more convenient route plans and are eligible for bonus payments.
Dynamic Routing
We also employ Dynamic Routing, a proprietary computational algorithm, to enable us to adapt to emerging demand pockets as our vehicles move through a city. Dynamic Routing creates new, temporary
pick-up
points near prospective riders, and updates routing accordingly in real-time to maximize demand capture. By creating new
pick-up
points close to prospective riders, Dynamic Routing reduces walking distances to such points, increasing the likelihood a rider will book a particular ride. In determining whether to update a route, Dynamic Routing ensures that any route updates do not result in breaches of estimated arrival times quoted to riders already aboard.
Pricing
We employ a proprietary machine learning model to dynamically set pricing for rides and maximize
per-vehicle
revenue, akin to the models used in the airline industry. We use a variety of data, such as expected vehicle Utilization at the time of ride, user convenience (measured as the median walk to station time for each ride search), user churn probability (an estimate of the likelihood of a user to significantly decrease his or her number of bookings based on historical data, built through a machine learning algorithm) and other variables, to determine the appropriate price point and to update pricing in real time. For example, ride pricing is increased during peak hours where an increase is not expected to impact overall Utilization, and prices are decreased during periods of low demand to increase Utilization and revenue.
Our per rider Total Ticket Fares generation has increased over time. To measure per rider Total Ticket Fares generation, we calculate the per rider Total Ticket Fares generated by all new riders (i.e., those riders using Swvl for the first time) in a given month and track the per rider Total Ticket Fares attributable to those specific riders in subsequent months.
 
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Fleet Management
Our technology also includes backend software that we use to support our drivers with various features on our platform, including training modules, trip management, rider
check-in
and checkout at
pick-up
and
drop-off
locations and 24/7 support. For our SaaS offering, among other things, we intend to provide similar fleet management services to corporate customers (as well as schools and municipalities) that operate their own vehicle fleets by granting such customers access to these features on our platform. For example, we intend to include a driver management module that allows such customers to add, train and manage their driver employees on the platform, edit driver information, and collect relevant documents, in addition to providing payment configurations and customer support. We also intend to include a ride management module that allows such customers access to features related to configuring, pricing, monitoring, distance and time tracking, and backup management in the event a driver does not arrive at a pickup or
drop-off
location.
Vehicles and Drivers
Our business model depends on having a sizable network of drivers who use our platform available for our riders. As Swvl does not itself own any vehicles or employ any drivers, we rely on individual drivers with their own vehicles and third party vehicle operators that own or lease vehicles and employ drivers. As a result, we have strived to create a seamless user experience for drivers and vehicle operators that incentivizes continued use of our platform. Individual drivers and third party vehicle operators have access to a dedicated mobile application that allows them to bid on preferred route plans and to have visibility of their expected earnings. Drivers and vehicle operators are matched with route plans on the basis of their preferences and overall cost. To incentivize performance, high-performing drivers and vehicle operators are more likely to be matched to their preferred route plan. Drivers (or the vehicle operators that directly employ them) are paid on a fixed, per route basis, which means their earnings are not tied to the number of riders aboard at any given time.
We believe our development of route optimization technology provides a key incentive for vehicle operators and drivers to use our platform. By optimizing our plans, cross-dispatching across B2C and TaaS routes and reducing the amount of time drivers spend moving between routes (as well as assigning routes so that drivers complete their route plans near their homes), we are able to increase the number of drivable routes per day and maximize earnings. We believe this has contributed to our strong rates of driver retention.
In addition, we aim to offer a safe, clean and comfortable travel environment for our riders. Vehicles must meet specific criteria relating to age, distance traveled, maintenance history and overall condition before being allowed to operate on our platform. When new drivers first begin to use our platform, they are similarly subject to various screening procedures. Each driver utilizing our platform is required to hold a commercial license to operate their vehicles and complete our engagement process. Drivers are also held to strict standards of conduct while driving on our platform.
Growth Strategy
 
   
Geographic Expansion
: We aim to become the
pre-eminent
mass-transit provider in emerging and developed markets. Our growth strategy is to identify opportunities for market entry in countries and cities where we can leverage the competitive advantages of our technology and platform. We examine factors such as total addressable market size and average fare per trip to assess whether expansion offers a viable path to profitability. We also review the quality of existing public transportation infrastructure to assess ease of market penetration and convertibility of public transportation users to our platform. For our Swvl Travel offering, we also assess factors such as the number of large cities in a country and the frequency of intercity travel to understand potential market size. Other considerations, such as ease and cost of doing business, as well as political stability, also factor into our expansion planning. We follow a standardized plan for market entry, premised on rapid commencement of operations and building scale across similar socio-economic blocks and regions. Our roadmap for geographic expansion as of the date of this Report is summarized below, but we continuously evaluate organic and inorganic growth opportunities to determine the optimal path to efficient expansion.
 
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Continued Innovation
: We are consistently working to improve our proprietary technology. As our optimization of demand prediction, routing and pricing improves, our user base, Utilization rates and customer experience are expected to improve. We expanded our overall Utilization rate from 48% in January 2018 to 81% in December 2021, while reducing inefficiency costs and improving our margins. We believe that this innovation is essential to our success and profitability.
 
   
Category Expansion
: We frequently consider how our core assets – our technology, access to a large vehicle fleet and customer base – can be leveraged to generate new streams of revenue while minimizing incremental R&D costs.
Marketing
Our marketing strategy is focused on expanding ridership in existing markets while rapidly accelerating brand awareness in new territories. We utilize a multi-channel approach, built on a foundation of digital marketing, to develop awareness of our offerings and expand our user base.
Since drivers and riders using our platform are internet-connected, we believe a digital-focused marketing approach offers the most effective means of accessing our target demographics in a cost-effective manner. Our advertising is conducted primarily through social media campaigns and placed web advertisements. We also rely on search engine optimization and application marketplace optimization tools to build and maintain the prominence of our brand. We offer various incentives from time to time, such as promotions for new riders and discounts for bulk purchases or specific trips. We also operate a referral program that offers incentives for riders to refer new users.
In new markets, we also advertise our offerings through offline advertising, such as billboards and events at public venues (such as shopping malls) where we host promotional events, giveaways and conduct
in-person
account activations.
In addition to the above, our marketing team is responsible for developing and maintaining partnerships with other businesses, such as telecom companies, which allows us to deploy promotions and incentives to the customers of such businesses.
Intellectual Property
The protection of our technology, including as described above under “Our Technology”, and other intellectual property is an important aspect of our business. We seek to protect our intellectual property through trademark and copyright laws as well as confidentiality agreements, other contractual commitments and security procedures. We enter into confidentiality and intellectual property assignment agreements with certain employees to control access to, and clarify ownership of, our technology and other proprietary information. We regularly review our technology development efforts and branding strategy to identify and assess options for protection of new intellectual property.
Intellectual property laws, contractual commitments and security and technical procedures provide only limited protection, and any of our intellectual property rights may be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed or misappropriated. Further, intellectual property laws vary from country to country, and we are in the process of transferring our intellectual property from Egypt to other jurisdictions in which we operate. Therefore, in other jurisdictions, we may be unable to adequately protect certain rights in our proprietary technology, brands, or other intellectual property from use by unauthorized entities or individuals. Please see the section entitled “Item 3D. Risks Related to Regulatory, Legal and Tax Factors Affecting Swvl—Failure to protect or enforce Swvl’s intellectual property rights could harm Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.”
Data Protection and Privacy
Swvl has made commitments to protect and respect the personal data and privacy of all of our external users. Our business depends on the collection, storage, transmission, use and processing of personal data of Swvl’s users’ and other sensitive information. As a result, our ability to protect such data and comply with the numerous laws, rules and regulations related to the collection, storage, transmission, use and other processing of such data is integral to our operations.
 
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We are in the process of developing systems and processes that are designed to protect users’ data, prevent data loss and prevent other privacy or security breaches. These measures, however, cannot guarantee security and may not be effective against all cyberattacks or breaches. For example, in July 2020, by exploiting a breach in certain third-party software used by Swvl, unauthorized parties gained access to a Swvl database containing personal data of its riders. While such breach has not had a material impact on Swvl’s business or operations and Swvl has since implemented measures to prevent a similar data breach, unauthorized parties may further exploit the breached information and may in the future gain access to Swvl’s systems or facilities through various other means.
We are also obligated to comply with all applicable laws, regulations and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection and information security. These laws, rules and regulations evolve frequently and their scope may continually change, through new legislation, amendments to existing legislation and changes in enforcement, and may be inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with each other. Nevertheless, we maintain and provide our users with a copy of our privacy policy, which is intended to succinctly describe the type of information we collect and how we use such information (including restrictions on disclosure and sharing of such information), as well as our security policies and procedures. We periodically update our privacy policy to reflect changes required by law or changes in the way we intend to collect or use information.
For more information on the risks related to data protection, data security and privacy as they relate to our business, please see the section entitled “Item 3D. Risk Factors.”
Insurance
We maintain insurance policies with global insurance providers to provide
in-ride
medical coverage to all riders and drivers in our Egypt market. We also provide comprehensive health insurance to employees in Egypt, Kenya, Pakistan, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia. We are currently in the process of obtaining other forms of insurance, such as general business liabilities and directors’ and officers’ insurance. Please see the section entitled “Item 3D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Operational Factors Affecting Swvl— Swvl has not historically maintained insurance coverage for its operations. Swvl may not be able to mitigate the risks facing its business and could incur significant uninsured losses, which could adversely affect its business, financial condition and operating results.”
Government Regulation
We are subject to a wide variety of laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate. The ridesharing industry and our business model are relatively nascent and rapidly evolving. New laws and regulations and changes to existing laws and regulations continue to be adopted, implemented and interpreted in response to our industry and related technologies. We strive to comply with all laws and regulations applicable to our operations, and believe that we are in compliance with such laws and regulations in all material respects, other than as described below.
While Swvl is not aware of any material limitations on foreign investment in the jurisdictions in which it operates, Swvl is required to comply with certain regulations related to such investment. In particular, in Jordan,
non-Jordanian
investors are restricted from wholly owning any project or business venture that involves certain trade, construction or services activities. While Swvl does not intend to engage in any such activities in Jordan, the organizational documents of the entity that currently conducts Swvl’s operations in Jordan erroneously includes certain restricted activities as potential objectives of such entity. Such entity is in the process of amending its organizational documents such that Swvl will be permitted to acquire and hold all of the equity thereof. In addition, in the United Arab Emirates, foreign investors are required to operate via an onshore licensed entity or an onshore branch of a foreign or free zone entity. Swvl has established such an onshore branch and has obtained the requisite licenses and approvals for such branch’s operations. Swvl may become subject to additional limitations and regulations as it expands its operations in the jurisdictions in which it operates and into new jurisdictions, and such limitations and regulations may impair Swvl’s ability to operate effectively in such jurisdictions.
 
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In Egypt, Swvl is subject to Law No. 87 of 2018 and the Executive Regulation by Presidential Decree No. 2180 of 2019 (collectively, “Egyptian Ridesharing Laws”). Pursuant to such Egyptian Ridesharing Laws, Swvl–as well as any other land transport service company in Egypt that utilizes information technology–is required to obtain a license issued by Egypt’s Land Transport Regulatory Authority (the “Egyptian LTRA”). While companies were required under the Egyptian Ridesharing Laws to obtain such licenses by December 12, 2018, the Egyptian LTRA was not established until June 11, 2019, and, to Swvl’s knowledge, the Egyptian LTRA has not yet issued a license to any ridesharing company, including Swvl. On December 12, 2019, Swvl submitted an application to the Egyptian LTRA, seeking the required license. If and when the Egyptian LTRA approves Swvl’s license application, Swvl will be required to pay a licensing fee, which will include a fee associated with the application process and a fee for Swvl’s
pre-license
operations in Egypt. As a result of Swvl’s current
non-compliance
with the licensing requirements of the Egyptian Ridesharing Laws, the Egyptian LTRA has imposed monetary fines on drivers using Swvl’s platform, which Swvl expects will continue to be imposed until Swvl’s license application is approved. Swvl has reimbursed, and expects to continue to reimburse, drivers for such fines.
We are also subject to a number of laws and regulations specifically governing the internet and mobile devices that are constantly evolving. Existing and future laws and regulations, or changes thereto, may impede the growth and availability of the internet and online offerings, require us to change our business practices or raise compliance costs or other costs of doing business. These laws and regulations, which continue to evolve, cover taxation, privacy and data protection, pricing, copyrights, distribution, mobile and other communications, advertising practices, consumer protections, the provision of online payment services, unencumbered internet access to our offerings and the characteristics and quality of online offerings, among other things. In particular, as we expand our operations internationally, we expect to become subject to the EU General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which regulates the collection, control, sharing, disclosure, use and other processing of personal data and imposes stringent data protection requirements and significant penalties, and the risk of civil litigation, for noncompliance. The GDPR has resulted in and will continue to result in significantly greater compliance burdens and costs for companies with users and operations in the European Union. As we expand our business internationally, we will become subject to these costs and burdens in an effort to ensure that our operations are GDPR compliant.
In addition to these laws and regulations that apply specifically to the mass-transit ridesharing industry, related technology, the internet and related regulations, our business operations are subject to other broadly applicable laws and regulations governing such issues as labor and employment, anti-discrimination, worker confidentiality obligations, consumer protection, taxation, competition, unionizing and collective action, background checks, anti-corruption, anti-bribery, import and export restrictions, environmental protection, sustainability, trade and economic sanctions, foreign ownership and investment and foreign exchange controls. Please see the section entitled “Item 3D. Risk Factors— Risks Related to Regulatory, Legal and Tax Factors Affecting Swvl —Swvl is subject to various laws relating to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, and countering the financing of terrorism and has operations in certain countries known to experience high levels of corruption. Swvl has not implemented, or has only recently implemented, certain policies and procedures for the operation of its business and compliance with applicable laws and regulations, including policies with respect to anti-bribery and anti-corruption matters and cyber protection.”
As we continue to expand our platform offerings and user base, we may become subject to additional laws and regulations, which may differ or conflict from one jurisdiction to another. Please see the section entitled “Item 3D. Risk Factors— Risks Related to Regulatory, Legal and Tax Factors Affecting Swvl — As Swvl expands its offerings, it may become subject to additional laws and regulations, and any actual or perceived failure by Swvl to comply with such laws and regulations or manage the increased costs associated with such laws and regulations could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition, and operating results.”
C.    Organizational Structure
Swvl Holdings Corp is a British Virgin Islands business company incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands. Swvl Holdings Corp has ten wholly-owned subsidiaries and two majority-owned subsidiaries. Swvl Holdings Corp’s wholly owned subsidiaries are: Swvl Inc., a British Virgin Islands business company incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands; Pivotal Merger Sub Company I, a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability; SWVL NBO Limited, a private limited company organized under
 
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the laws of Kenya; SWVL Saudi for Information Technology, a single person limited liability company organized under the laws of Saudi Arabia; Swvl Technologies Limited, a private limited company organized under the laws of Kenya; Swvl Global FZE, a limited liability company organized under the laws of Dubai; SWVL Technologies FZE, a limited liability company organized under the laws of Dubai and a directly wholly owned subsidiary of Swvl Global FZE; Swvl Holdco Corp, a British Virgin Islands business company incorporated under the laws of the British Virgin Islands; and Swvl MY For Information Technology SDN BHD, a company limited by shares organized under the laws of Malaysia.
Swvl Holding Corp’s majority-owned subsidiaries are: Shotl Transportation S.L., a limited liability company organized under the laws of Spain, in which Swvl Holding Corp’s wholly owned subsidiary Swvl Inc. holds 55% of the outstanding equity interests; Viapool Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware, in which Swvl Holding Corp’s wholly owned subsidiary Swvl Inc. holds 51% of the outstanding equity interests; Swvl For Smart Transport Applications and Services LLC, a limited liability company organized under the laws of Egypt, in which Swvl Holding Corp’s wholly owned subsidiary Swvl Inc. holds 99.8% of the outstanding equity interests; and Swvl Pakistan (Private) Limited, a company limited by shares organized under the laws of Pakistan, in which Swvl Holding Corp’s wholly owned subsidiary Swvl Inc. holds 99.9987% of the outstanding equity interests. The minority interests in Swvl For Smart Transport Applications and Services LLC and Swvl Pakistan (Private Limited) are held by persons affiliated with Swvl solely to comply with applicable laws requiring local resident shareholders.
Swvl currently operates in Jordan through an entity, Al Tanakol Al Thaki L Tasmeem Wa Tatweer Baramej Wa Anthemat Al Hasoub (“Swvl Jordan”), in which it holds only economic rights and does not hold any direct or indirect equity interest. All of the equity in Swvl Jordan is instead temporarily being held by persons affiliated with Swvl in favor of Swvl as beneficiary. Swvl is in the process of acquiring 49% of the equity of Swvl Jordan, and the remainder when it its permitted to do so under applicable law. Until such time, Swvl’s interest in the equity of Swvl Jordan will be governed by an interim management agreement with the Jordanian national persons holding such equity. Pursuant to the interim management agreement, such persons (i) hold the equity in Swvl Jordan in trust for, on behalf of and for the sole benefit of Swvl and (ii) are obligated to transfer such equity to Swvl or an affiliate of Swvl for nominal consideration upon the request of Swvl.
 
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A diagram of Swvl’s group structure, as described above, is provided below:
D.    Property, Plants and Equipment
We lease approximately 13,391 square feet of office space for our corporate headquarters, located at the Offices 4 at One Central, Dubai World Trade Center, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Our existing headquarters lease expires on September 14, 2024, which we expect to extend to December 31, 2026, including in connection with an office expansion plan for our headquarters. In addition, we lease various office spaces across different cities in: Egypt, Pakistan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Malaysia and Kenya. We expect to grow our facilities footprint as our business continues to grow and establish a new engineering hub in Cairo. We also expect to establish local offices in some or all of the jurisdictions into which we are expanding geographically. The phone number for our headquarters is +971 42241293.
 
ITEM 4A.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.
 
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ITEM 5.
OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of Swvl’s financial condition and results of operations together with Swvl’s consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Report. The following discussion and analysis is based on Swvl’s financial information prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB and related interpretations issued by the IFRS Interpretations Committee. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Report, including information with respect to Swvl’s plans and strategy for Swvl’s business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Please see the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” for a discussion of the risks, uncertainties and assumptions associated with these statements and for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis. Swvl’s historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any period in the future.
Unless the context otherwise requires, for the purposes of this section, “Swvl”, “we”, “us”, “our”, or the “Company” refer to the business of Swvl Holdings Corp and its subsidiaries, “FY 2021” refers to the fiscal year of Swvl ended December 31, 2021, “FY 2020” refers to the fiscal year of Swvl ended December 31, 2020 and “FY 2019” refers to the fiscal year of Swvl ended December 31, 2019.
For discussion related to our financial condition, changes in financial condition and results of operations for 2020 compared to 2019, please refer to the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of Swvl” of our Registration Statement on
Form F-4,
which was filed with the SEC on March 11, 2022.
Recent Developments
Equity Line Financing
On March 22, 2022, we entered into an equity line financing pursuant to a common stock purchase agreement with B. Riley pursuant to which B. Riley committed to purchase up to $471.7 million (the “Total Commitment”) of Ordinary Shares, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the purchase agreement.
Upon the initial satisfaction of the conditions to B. Riley purchase obligation set forth in the purchase agreement (the “Commencement”), including that a registration statement registering under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), the resale by B. Riley of Ordinary Shares issued to it by Swvl under the purchase agreement, which Swvl agreed to file with the SEC following the B. Riley Closing pursuant to the registration rights agreement, is declared effective by the SEC and a final prospectus relating thereto is filed with the SEC, Swvl will have the right, but not the obligation, from time to time at Swvl’s sole discretion over the
24-month
period from and after the Commencement, to direct B. Riley to purchase a specified amount of Ordinary Shares (such specified amount, the “Purchase Share Amount”), not to exceed a daily maximum calculated in accordance with the terms of the purchase agreement.
The per share purchase price for the Ordinary Shares that Swvl elects to sell to B. Riley in a purchase pursuant to the purchase agreement, if any, will be determined by reference to the volume weighted average price of the Ordinary Shares (the “VWAP”), less a discount of 3%.
There is no upper limit on the price per share that B. Riley could be obligated to pay for the Ordinary Shares Swvl may elect to sell to it in any purchase under the purchase agreement. From and after the Commencement, Swvl will control the timing and amount of any sales of Ordinary Shares to B. Riley. Actual sales of Ordinary Shares to B. Riley under the purchase agreement will depend on a variety of factors to be determined by Swvl from time to time, including, among other things, market conditions, the trading price of Swvl’s Ordinary Shares and determinations by Swvl as to the appropriate sources of funding for its business and its operations.
Swvl may not issue or sell any Ordinary Shares to B. Riley under the purchase agreement which, when aggregated with all other Ordinary Shares then beneficially owned by B. Riley and its affiliates (as calculated pursuant to Section 13(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and Rule
13d-3
promulgated thereunder), would result in B. Riley beneficially owning more than 4.99% of the outstanding Ordinary Shares.
 
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The net proceeds under the purchase agreement to Swvl will depend on the frequency and prices at which Swvl sells its Ordinary Shares to B. Riley. Swvl currently expects that any proceeds received by it from such sales to B. Riley will be used for working capital and general corporate purposes, including to fund acquisitions.
The purchase agreement will automatically terminate on the earliest to occur of (i) the first day of the month next following the
24-month
anniversary of the date of the Commencement, (ii) the date on which B. Riley shall have purchased from Swvl under the purchase agreement Ordinary Shares for an aggregate gross purchase price equal to the Total Commitment and (iii) certain other customary termination events. Swvl has the right to terminate the purchase agreement at any time after Commencement, at no cost or penalty, upon five trading days’ prior written notice to B. Riley. B. Riley will also have the right to terminate the purchase agreement, at no cost or penalty, upon five trading days’ prior written notice to Swvl, if certain events occur or conditions are not met, including if the initial registration statement is not filed or has not been declared effective by the specified deadlines in the registration rights agreement. Swvl and B. Riley may also agree to terminate the purchase agreement by mutual written consent. No provision of the purchase agreement or the registration rights agreement may be modified or waived by Swvl or B. Riley from and after the date that is one (1) trading day immediately preceding the date on which the initial registration statement is initially filed with the Commission.
As consideration for B. Riley’s commitment under the purchase agreement to purchase our Ordinary Shares, we issued 386,971 Ordinary Shares to B. Riley and such Ordinary Shares are fully earned and
non-refundable,
even in the event we do not sell any Ordinary Shares to B. Riley under the purchase agreement.
Impact of the
COVID-19
Pandemic
The worldwide spread of
COVID-19
has caused public health officials to recommend and governments to enact precautions to mitigate the spread of the virus, including travel restrictions, extensive social distancing and issuing
“shelter-in-place”
orders in many regions, including the jurisdictions in which we operate. Beginning in March 2020, the pandemic and these related responses have had an adverse effect on demand and earning opportunities for drivers using our platform, leading to lower than expected revenues. While our revenue nevertheless increased from $12.4 million in FY 2019 to $17.3 million in FY 2020, we had anticipated—prior to the spread of
COVID-19—that
our revenues would grow to approximately $100 million in FY 2020. Our revenue increased from $17.3 million in 2020 to $38.3 million in 2021.
We continue to closely monitor the impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic. Although the overall business performance has showed signs of recovery since the third quarter of 2020, the exact timing and pace of the recovery remain uncertain. As certain regions have reopened, some have experienced a resurgence of
COVID-19
cases and reimposed restrictions. The extent to which our operations will continue to be impacted by the pandemic will depend largely on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the pandemic, actions by government authorities and private businesses to contain the pandemic or recover from its impact, the availability and distribution of the vaccine, the extent of any virus mutations or new variants of
COVID-19,
among other things. Even as travel restrictions have been and will continue to be modified or lifted, we anticipate that continued social distancing, altered consumer behavior, reduced travel and commuting and expected corporate cost cutting will be significant challenges for us. The strength and duration of these challenges cannot be presently estimated.
In response to the
COVID-19
pandemic, we have adopted and continue to adopt measures based on the then-current conditions in the regions we operate, including temporarily having employees in nearly all office locations work remotely, limiting employee travel and canceling or postponing events and meetings or holding them virtually, temporarily suspending our usual services, other than to certain key business customers, and operating reduced-service for essential workers at no charge.
We remain confident in our ability to navigate this challenging time and continue to focus on our long- term growth opportunities and our business model. With $9.5 million in unrestricted cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2021, the additional funds we have raised during 2021 and the additional capital raised in connection with the Business Combination and PIPE Financing, we believe we have sufficient liquidity to continue to support our business operations and to make strategic investments that are in the best interests of our shareholders and other stakeholders. For more information on risks associated with the
COVID-19
pandemic, please see the section entitled “Item 3D. Risk Factors.”
 
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Factors Affecting Our Business and Results of Operations
We believe that our future performance and success depend to a substantial extent on the following factors, each of which is in turn subject to significant risks and challenges, including those discussed below and in the section of this Report entitled “Item 3D. Risk Factors.”
Our ability to cost-effectively retain and increase the number of riders who use, and their utilization of, our platform, and increase our share of their transportation spend.
We grow our business by attracting new riders to our platform (i.e., unique users taking their first ride with Swvl) and increasing their usage of our platform over time. As a result, the number of riders on our platform and their utilization of our offerings are the key drivers of our B2C business. Our ability to cost-effectively attract new riders and retain and increase the use of our platform by existing riders is critical to scaling our business. More riders accessing offerings on our platform and greater utilization drive increased revenue and profitability. We seek to increase both the number of riders on our platform and the usage of our platform through product innovation, improved user experience, and additional offerings. While we anticipate this increasing level of investment will drive growth through
word-of-mouth
referrals, we also continue to invest in brand and growth marketing, as well as the use of paid marketing initiatives, rider and driver incentives and marketing partnerships with third parties in an effort to attract new riders to our platform and to enhance rider Utilization (calculated as Total Bookings divided by Total Available Seats, over the period of measurement). New riders in each of fiscal year 2019, fiscal year 2020 and the fiscal year 2021 accounted for approximately 18.2%, 15.5% and 18.2% of our Total Ticket Fares, respectively. Once riders start using Swvl, we seek to provide a quality experience and a diverse offering of routes and products to accommodate different transportation use cases in order to retain riders and encourage repeat usage. Our efforts have resulted in Total Ticket Fares retention in excess of 60%, measured in each of January 2020 and February 2020 prior to the effects of
COVID-19.
We measure Total Ticket Fares retention by comparing the Total Ticket Fares generated by a cohort of users in their 12th month of activity against the Total Ticket Fares generated by such cohort in their first month of activity. As discussed below, we also intend to expand into new geographical markets, which we believe will also increase the number of riders.
If we fail to continue to attract riders to our platform and grow our rider base, expand riders’ usage of our platform over time or increase our share of riders’ transportation spend, our results of operations would be harmed.
Our ability to cost-effectively attract and retain drivers to use our platform, or to increase utilization of our platform by existing drivers.
Growing the number of drivers enables us to increase the number of routes on our network, thereby increasing the aggregate earnings potential for drivers and third party vehicle operators while simultaneously improving access and availability for riders. Our ability to maintain and grow our driver base and increase driver utilization of our platform depends in part on our ability to continue to deliver meaningful earning opportunities for drivers and third party vehicle operators who use our platform, as well as our ability to provide a seamless user experience for drivers that incentivizes continued use of our platform. We therefore continue to invest in developing technology that is intended to not only allow drivers and vehicle operators to maximize earnings while using our platform, but also improves the
day-to-day
experience for those drivers.
For instance, we believe our development of route optimization technology provides a key incentive for drivers and third party vehicle operators to use our platform. By optimizing our plans, cross-dispatching across Swvl Retail and Swvl Business routes and reducing the amount of time drivers spend moving between routes (as well as assigning routes so that drivers complete their route plans near their homes), we are able to increase the number of drivable routes per day and increase drivers’ and vehicle operators’ earnings. We believe this has contributed to our strong rates of driver retention.
Additionally, maintaining and continuing to grow our base of drivers is critical to delivering a quality experience on our platform. The more dedicated and able drivers that decide to use our platform, the more routes
 
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and rides we are able to provide. We also believe this allows us to maintain high quality service and low wait times. Our incentive programs to attract qualified drivers include bonus payments and other incentives to high-performing drivers and vehicle operators. During the
COVID-19
pandemic, we provided temporary financial assistance to support drivers using our platform.
Our ability to grow and retain drivers is linked to our ability to maintain and increase the number of riders on our platform. We believe that the more riders we have on our platform, the easier it can be to maintain and attract new drivers to our platform. If we fail to continue to attract drivers to our platform and grow the number of routes we offer, riders’ usage of our platform may decrease and our results of operations would be harmed. In addition, when we enter a new market, we typically need to make significant upfront investments to drive sufficient scale of drivers in order to establish a functioning marketplace for our riders, which could adversely affect our results of operations in the periods in which such investments are made and delay our efforts to achieve profitability.
Our ability to successfully develop new offerings on our platform and enhance our existing offerings.
As part of our business, we consider how our core assets – our technology, access to a large vehicle fleet and our customer base – can be leveraged to generate new streams of revenue while minimizing incremental costs. For example, we initially launched with our core B2C retail offering, through which we connect riders using our platform to a network of minibuses and other vehicles that operate on fixed and semi-fixed routes within the cities we serve. We have since expanded our B2C offerings to include Swvl Travel, which allows riders to book and take intercity, long-distance trips. We also opened and manage a physical Swvl Travel shop in Hurghada, Egypt, which allows riders to book intercity trips in person in a convenient location for frequent travelers.
We have also diversified our revenues beyond B2C offerings with our TaaS enterprise products, which are marketed as Swvl Business and which have historically been higher-margin products. Swvl Business enables our corporate customers (as well as schools and municipalities) to use Swvl’s technology and platform to optimize the commute and travel programs they operate for their employees (and students). Since Swvl Business uses technology already developed for our B2C offerings, its development and deployment does not (and did not) impose significant additional R&D costs on our business. We currently intend to expand our Swvl Business offerings with SaaS in 2022. Our SaaS offerings are expected to be targeted at corporate customers (as well as schools and municipalities) that operate their own vehicle fleets, with specific services tailored to the needs of each customer. We currently intend for our basic offerings to include access to our dedicated Swvl Business application, which centralizes passenger management, billing, scheduling, data analytics and support functions in one platform. At higher service tiers, we currently intend to provide the use of our network optimization and Dynamic Routing technologies, as well as access to our fleet management modules, which will enable our customers to more easily manage their drivers and track their rides. We also currently plan to offer consulting and reporting services. We intend to use a tiered cost-plus pricing model for our SaaS products, which we expect will allow us to enhance our margins.
Our ability to invest effectively in technology and research and development and to successfully integrate them into our business.
Our technology is a critical component of our business proposition. Our ability to provide a seamless experience for our riders and drivers, to effectively predict rider demand, to create efficient, high-utilization route plans and to price our offerings accordingly depends on ongoing innovation and the effectiveness of our data analysis, modeling and algorithms. As a result, we have made, and will continue to make, significant investments in research and development and technology in an effort to improve our platform and to attract and retain drivers and riders, expand the capabilities and scope of our offerings, and enhance our customer experience. We review and target our research and development activities on an ongoing basis based on the needs of our business. We believe that continued optimization of demand prediction, routing and pricing can improve our user base, utilization rates and customer experience, which we believe in turn can reduce inefficiency costs and improve our margins.
Our engineers and data scientists are critical to the success of our business and we will continue to invest in these areas. In addition, we will continue to dedicate significant resources to research and development efforts, focusing on continuing to improve our proprietary technology and developing innovative applications.
 
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Our ability to operate in distinct geographic markets and our ability to expand into new markets.
Our capacity for continued growth and ability to achieve and maintain profitability depends in part on our ability to operate and compete effectively in different geographic markets. Each market is subject to distinct competitive and operational dynamics. These include our ability to offer more attractive transportation offerings than alternative options, our ability to efficiently attract and retain drivers and riders, ride length and the number of routes available on our platform, all of which affect our sales, results of operations and key business metrics. As a result, we may experience fluctuations in our results of operations due to the changing dynamics in the geographic markets where we operate.
Since our founding, we have been able to expand into new geographies and markets. Since 2017, we expanded our operations to 82 cities in seven countries (not including the countries of operation of Shotl and Viapool, two companies which Swvl acquired controlling interests in November 2021 and January 2022, respectively, or door2door, a company which Swvl announced a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in March 2022 and that is expected to be completed in Q2 2022), with our core Retail offering available in select cities in Egypt, Kenya, Pakistan and Jordan. In January 2019, we commenced operations in Nairobi, Kenya. In the second half of 2019, we commenced operations in major cities in Pakistan, including Lahore, Islamabad and Karachi, and relocated our headquarters from Egypt to Dubai, United Arab Emirates. In 2020 and 2021, we also launched TaaS offerings in the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Malaysia.
On August 18, 2021, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in Shotl, a mass transit platform that partners with municipalities and corporations to provide
on-demand
bus and van services in Europe, Latin America and the Asia Pacific region, which expanded our geographic footprint to 22 additional cities in 10 countries. The transaction closed on November 19, 2021.
On November 16, 2021, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in Viapool, a mass transit platform currently operating in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Santiago, Chile. The transaction closed on January 14, 2022.
On March 24, 2022, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire a controlling interest in door2door, a high-growth mobility operations platform that partners with municipalities, public transit operators, corporations, and automotive companies to optimize shared mobility solutions across Europe. The closing of the door2door transaction is subject to customary closing conditions and is expected to be completed in Q2 2022.
A core component of our growth strategy is to identify opportunities for market entry in countries and cities where we can leverage what we believe are the competitive advantages offered by our technology and platform. We examine factors such as total addressable market size and average fare per trip to assess whether expansion offers a viable path to profitability. We also review the quality of existing public transportation infrastructure to assess ease of market penetration and convertibility of public transportation users to our platform. For our Swvl Travel offering, we also assess factors such as the number of large cities in a country and the frequency of intercity travel to understand potential market size. Other considerations, such as ease and cost of doing business, as well as political stability, also factor into our expansion planning.
Our ability to enter into strategic acquisitions and partnerships, and successfully integrate them into our business or achieve our objectives of the acquisitions or strategic partnerships.
We have made, and intend to continue to make, strategic acquisitions to expand our user base, enter new markets and add complementary products and technologies. Our strategic acquisitions may affect our future financial results. For example, we recently acquired controlling interests in Shotl and Viapool, and announced an agreement to acquire door2door, mass transit platforms that are expected to expand our geographic footprint to include Europe, Latin America and the Asia Pacific region. Integration of the Shotl, Viapool and door2door businesses and operations will be a complex, time-consuming and costly process, particularly given that the acquisition will significantly diversify the geographic areas in which we operate. In addition, we may not realize all of the anticipated benefits from the acquisition of controlling interests in Shotl, Viapool and door2door, such as cost savings and revenue enhancements, for various reasons, including the fact that diligence was of a limited scope and performed by third party business consultants (and, with respect to Shotl, solely with respect to Shotl’s business in Spain), difficulties integrating operations and personnel, higher costs,
COVID-19
related interruption, unknown liabilities and fluctuations in markets.
 
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We believe such acquisitions complement our business, but there is no assurance that such acquired businesses will be successfully integrated into our business or generate substantial revenue, and operating costs and integration risks from these and future acquisitions may negatively affect our financial performance.
We also enter into a variety of strategic partnerships that contribute to several aspects of our business, including partnerships that bring more ride volume to our platform and help us increase brand awareness.
Our ability to compete effectively.
We operate in a competitive market and must continue to compete effectively in order to grow, improve our results of operations and achieve and maintain long-term profitability. Our principal source of competition is public transportation. We strive to harness the competitive advantages of our offerings to convert users of public transportation into users of our platform. We also compete against taxi companies and traditional ridesharing platforms, such as Uber. By offering comfortable, reliable and safe rides at an accessible price point, our offerings aim to attract users of these single-rider services by offering a lower-cost alternative that offers a better rider experience than public transportation. We believe we have differentiated our business from these competitors by building a diverse set of offerings on a transportation network at scale, while upholding our culture and values and creating a brand that embodies a commitment to exceptional offerings and social responsibility. However, we must continue to respond to competitive pressures. Consequently, we intend to keep investing in our platform to attract and retain drivers and riders, and respond to shifts in competitors’ pricing levels, revenue models or business practices. If we are not able to compete effectively with our competitors, including our main competition of public transportation, our results of operations will be harmed.
Our ability to maintain and continue developing our reputation and to promote brand awareness and to optimize driver and rider incentives.
We believe that maintaining and enhancing our reputation and brand is critical to our ability to attract and retain employees and platform users. A core component of our marketing strategy involves focusing on expanding ridership in existing markets while rapidly accelerating brand awareness in new territories. We utilize a multi-channel approach, built on a foundation of digital marketing, to develop awareness of our offerings and expand our user base. We use a digital-focused marketing approach because we believe it offers the most effective means of accessing our target demographics in a cost-effective manner. Our advertising is conducted primarily through social media campaigns and placed web advertisements. We also rely on search engine optimization and application marketplace optimization tools to build and maintain the prominence of our brand. In new markets, we also advertise our offerings through offline advertising, such as billboards and events at public venues (such as shopping malls) where we may host promotional events, giveaways and conduct
in-person
account activations. We also seek to develop and maintain partnerships with other businesses, such as telecom companies, that allow us to deploy promotions and incentives to the customers of such businesses. We monitor the effectiveness of our marketing spend via several metrics, including customer acquisition cost.
We offer various incentives from time to time, such as promotions for new riders and discounts for bulk purchases or specific trips. We also operate a referral program that offers incentives for riders to refer new users.
The impact of uncertainties with respect to government laws, policies and regulations in the markets in which we operate.
We are subject to a wide variety of laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate. The ridesharing industry and our business model are relatively nascent and rapidly evolving. Regulations have impacted or could impact, among others, the nature of and scope of offerings we are able to make available through our platform, the pricing of offerings on our platform, our relationship with, and incentives, fees and commissions provided to or charged from, drivers, incentives provided to riders, our ability to operate in certain segments of our business, our ownership percentage in operating entities that may be subject to foreign ownership restrictions and insurance we are required to maintain. For example, in Egypt we are subject to licensing and other requirements under Law No. 87 of 2018
 
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and the Executive Regulation by Presidential Decree No. 2180 of 2019, which regulate ridesharing companies such as ours. We have also previously entered into agreements with the Egyptian Competition Authority in relation to the regulation of pricing and offerings in our industry. We expect that our ability to manage our relationships with regulators in each of our markets, as well as existing and evolving regulations, will continue to impact our results in the future. Due to the nascent and uncertain state of the legal frameworks governing the ridesharing industry in the jurisdictions in which we operate, we have not obtained all of the required licenses and permits for certain cities where we operate; however, we are continuously making efforts to obtain such licenses and permits. Please see the section entitled “Item 3.D. Risk Factors— Risks Related to Regulatory, Legal and Tax Factors Affecting Swvl—Uncertainties with respect to the legal systems in the jurisdictions in which Swvl operates, including changes in laws and the adoption and interpretation of new laws and regulations, could adversely affect Swvl’s business, financial condition and operating results.”
We are also subject to a number of laws and regulations specifically governing the Internet and mobile devices, and these laws and regulations are constantly evolving. Existing and future laws and regulations, or changes thereto, may impede the growth and availability of the Internet and online offerings, require us to change our business practices or raise compliance costs or other costs of doing business. In particular, as we expand our operations internationally, we expect to become subject to GDPR, which regulates the collection, control, sharing, disclosure, use and other processing of personal data and imposes stringent data protection requirements and significant penalties, and the risk of litigation or other action, for noncompliance. The GDPR has resulted in and will continue to result in significantly greater compliance burdens and costs for companies with users and operations in the European Union. As we expand our business internationally, we will become subject to these costs and burdens in an effort to comply with GDPR.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
Revenue represents the gross amount of fares charged to
end-users
of the Swvl platform, as reduced by
end-user
discounts and promotions, sales refunds, uncollected cash and sales waivers. For further details on our revenue recognition, please see the subsection entitled “Critical Accounting Policies—Revenue.”
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales consists of costs directly related to delivering transportation services, which include payments to captains for operating our routes (net of any deductions, including amounts charged to captains on account of breach of terms of service), bonuses payable to captains and tolls and fines paid by Swvl. Cost of sales does not include any depreciation or amortization expenses. Our depreciation and amortization expenses are almost exclusively attributable to
non-revenue
generating activities, including depreciation of our facilities and equipment used to support back office operations and depreciation of
right-of-use
assets associated with corporate leases.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses primarily consist of personnel-related compensation costs including employee share scheme charges, professional services fees, technology costs, office costs, travel costs, depreciation, insurance, rent, bank fees, foreign exchange losses/gains, utilities, communication and other corporate costs. General and administrative expenses are expensed as incurred.
Selling and Marketing Expenses
Selling and marketing expenses primarily consist of growth marketing expenses, offline marketing expenses, personnel compensation expenses and the costs of credits offered to riders for referring new riders. Selling and marketing costs are expensed as incurred.
Provision for Expected Credit Losses
This consists of the provision for expected credit loss against trade and other receivables.
 
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Other Expenses
Other expenses consist primarily of indirect tax expenses and other expenses not categorized elsewhere.
Finance Income
Finance income consists primarily of interest income from bank deposits.
Finance Costs
Finance costs consist primarily of lease finance charges and interest expense on the Swvl Convertible Notes.
Tax
This primarily relates to the deferred tax asset created on tax losses incurred by the Company, which can be set off against future taxable income.
A.    Operating Results
Results of Operations
The following selected consolidated financial data are derived from the audited financial statements of the Company, and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, the related notes and the rest of the section of this Report entitled “Item 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” The historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results of future operations.
 
    
Year Ended December 31
 
($ million)
  
2021
    
2020
    
2019
 
                      
Revenue
     38.3        17.3        12.4  
Cost of sales
     (48.9      (26.4      (33.8
Gross loss
     (10.6   
 
(9.1
  
 
(21.4
General and administrative expenses
     (74.7      (18.6      (10.8
Selling and marketing expenses
     (13.7      (4.7      (8.3
Provision for expected credit losses
     (1.3      (0.7      (0.3
Other expenses
  
 
(0.2
  
 
(0.2
  
 
(0.1
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Operating loss
     (100.5      (33.4      (40.9
Finance income
     0.2        0.6        0.4  
Finance costs
  
 
(45.9
  
 
(0.1
  
 
(0.1
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Loss for the year before tax
  
 
(146.2
  
 
(32.9
  
 
(40.6
Tax
     4.7        3.2        5.4  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Loss for the year
     (141.4      (29.7      (35.3
Other comprehensive income
     (0.4      (0.3      1.2  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total comprehensive loss for the year
  
 
(141.8
  
 
(30.0
</